Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for 11 History Chapter 8 Confrontation of Cultures Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.
Confrontation of Cultures NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 8
Confrontation of Cultures Questions and Answers Class 11 History Chapter 8
Compare the civilization of the Aztecs with that of the Mesopotamians.
|(i) It was a rural civilization||(i) It was a blend of rural and urban civilization. Actually, it was a mixture of Hunter, gatherer, animal herders and agriculture society.|
|(ii) Aztecs Society was hierarchical warriors, priest,
artisans, nobles and teachers were the most respected groups.(iii) Mobility was hereditary. They used to choose from among them, a supreme leader i.e. the king.(iv) They adopted land reclamations and made artificial islands in Lake Maxico.(v) Children education was given preference but sometimes, the poor sold their children as slaves.
|(ii) Mesopotamia means the land between two rivers. These rivers were Euphrates and Tigris.
(iii) Cuneiform writing was prevailing in this civilization. Clay tablet’s were found.
(iv) Famous cities of this civilization were: Ur, Uruk, Lagash Babylon and Ninveh.
(v) Gods were An, Enwil, Enki, Madruk, Istan and Nabu. Every tribe was free to observe and follow his own religion and faith.
(vi) The Sumerians were pioneer in the development of this civilization.
(vii) Mesopotamia has trading relations with the Harappans.
(viii) The Mesopotamians main industries were—Weapons, pottery, cloth-making.
(ix) People of this civilization were skilled in seal manufacturing, sculpture and carving. They discovered system of multiplication and division.
What were the new developments helping European navigation in the fifteenth Century?
These new developments were—
- Invention and use of magnetic compass to identify cardinal points accurately.
- Large ships were built.
- Books on Cosmography and geography available.
- European economy suffered set-back
- Shortage of gold and silver used for coinage
- Crusades against Turk were launched.
- Establishment of a trading station in Cape Bojador in Africa
- Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula by Christian Kings from the Arabs.
Give reasons for Spain and Portugal being the first in the fifteenth Century to venture across the Atlantic.
Reasons for initiative taken by Spain and Portugal in sea-voyages—Mainly, we can describe three reasons for such initiative. These are—
(ii) Religious and
(i) Economic Reasons—
- Europe’s economy suffered set-back due to depletion of gold and silver stock in mines and several other reasons.
- Recession in trade because of low agricultural production.
- Long-distance trade became difficult after the Turks conquered Constantinople.
(ii) Religious reasons—Christian missonaries were interested in propagation of Christianity all over the world. They wanted conversion of more and more people in Christianity. They were ready to bear risks involved in sea voyages.
(iii) Political reasons—
- They wanted establishment of their colonies in regions with a warmer climate as and when the trade relations were duly formed.
(iv) A system of claiming rights of sovereignty over newly conquered territories through contracts known as Capitulaciones was developed
(v) Prince Henry of Portugal attacked Ceuta (Africa) in 1415.
Conclusion—On the above grounds, Spain and Portugal took initiative earlier than other European countries in sea-voyages. They had expert navigators and these countries were existed at sea-shore. Hence, there was no difficulty to cross the Atlantic and explore new lands of the world.
What new food items were transmitted from the South America to the rest of the World?
These were—hens, honey, sugar, potatoes, pumpkin, manioc roots, squash, corn, flesh or Lamas etc.
Write an account of the journey of an African boy of seventeen captured and taken to Brazil as a slave.
Supposing that the boy was captured in Madagaskar in Africa. He would have been shipped through Indian ocean to the extreme south terminal of Africa, then a turn towards South Atlantic ocean and finally, dropped in Brazil, the part of South America, named it because of brazil-wood amply grown there. The boy along with a number of other teenagers and youths, thrusted into the cabin and then locked outside.
He would have been kept for three days in a camp at Brazil Coast and then despatched to gold mines, sugar mill or in cutting and making dye from the brazil trees in dense forest.
Likewise boys were sold by their parents or the agents to the Brazilian traders in exchange of maize, manioc and cassava which became staple foods for the native of Africa. Slaves were treated not better than pet animals and used to get more and more work done resulting in their premature death.
How did the discovery of South America lead to the development of European Colonialism?
Integral relation between discovery of South America and Development of European Colonization :
(i) South American people were known to Europeans when they the began to sail across the Atlantic Sea.
(ii) It was due to ship manufacturing industry in Europe progressed in excel.
(iii) Travel literature and books on cosmography and geography – helped Europeans to explore new lands. Columbus of
Portugal was the first navigator who discovered America.
(iv) There were gold and silver mines in South America but people there could understand about that natural resource when Europeans made them slave and established their colonies.
(v) People in America as per Columbus were ingeneous and Portuguese cheated them.
(vi) During European Colonization in America, the natural resources like timber wood, gold and silver mines were discovered and utilised.
(vii) Joint Stock Companies were opened in South America by the people of England, France, Belgium and Holland i,e. all Europe.
(vii) Agricultural production was also increased in America during British Colonization.
Conclusion—On the basis of above series of events, it can be stated that it was the effort of Europeans which discovered America, explored and exploited .the natural resources there and increased agricultural production. It is equally true that Europeans did misbehave and inflicted atrocities on local people of America yet it could see development only during the presence of European colonies there.