Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for 11 History Chapter 7 Changing Cultural Traditions Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.
Changing Cultural Traditions NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 7
Changing Cultural Traditions Questions and Answers Class 11 History Chapter 7
Which elements of Greek and Roman Cultural were revived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
- religion (humanism)
- classical architecture
Compare details of Italian architecture of this period with Islamic architecture.
The remains excavated by archaeologists inspired a new style in architecture. It was actually a revival of the Imperial Roman Style. It is known as classical architecture. We see Italian architecture in the sixteenth century had copied many features of Imperical Roman Buildings.
There were persons with multi-skills in painting, sculpture and reliefs altogether like Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564). His painting in the Sistine Chapel “The Pie.ta” and dome design of St. ; Peter’s Church is worth seeing in Rome. Another was Filippo Brunelleschi (1337-1446).
He designed Duomo of Florence. In Islamic architecture, we had seen archie buildings with domes i.e. Mosque, Tomb, grave-yard etc. They were known to mosaic and animated paintings. The Roman influence in Islamic architecture can , be seen easily. Sarai, Madarsa and palaces were built during Islamic empires. We can see the buildings Constructed during Sultanate period in India and then it would become easy to understand the architecture of this period.
Why were Italian towns the first to experience the ideas of humanism?
Location of Italy surrounded by ocean from three sides, bestowed her with longer coast line where ports had been built during the period in question. Thus, Italian towns got the benefits of. transmission of diversified culture prevalilirig in Byzantine empire (Eastern Europe), and Islamic countries through these ports. The trade with China via the silk route and with western European countries also provided opportunity to Italian nationals to observe the culture, architecture, society, standard of living mutely.
Independent city states were formed and ruled under the Common Wealth authority which has constituted Council. The period, in which Italy remained as mute observer of the development in Byzantine E empire, Western Europe and Islamic countries, gave stimulus to understand very first humanism in its real form.
It was a war of N renaissance which acted upon Italy very first because of being her on.The trade routes to western Europe, the Islamic countries and Eastern n as also Southern Asia. We see that the earliest universities were-up in Italian towns, eg. university of Padua and Bologna.
Law was here the popular subject of study. Frequent debate and discussions on law substantiated an idea that there was much to be learnt which religious teaching alone could not give. This idea or culture was labelled as humanism by the historians in the nineteenth century.
Compare the Venetian idea of good government with those in contemporary France.
|Venetian Idea of Government||French idea of Government|
|(i) It was democratic government as stated by Cardinal Gasparo Contarini in his “The Common Wealth And Government of Venice.
(ii) Here was a Council in Institution of Common Wealth and gentleman of city, who had attained twenty five years of age, were its members.
(iii) Common people were not eligible to get membership of the Common Wealth because its effects earlier studied and not found good anyway.
(iv) Members to Council were selected on the basis of noble by birth and ennobled by virtue.
|(i) The Kingship on the decline of feudal system was called New Monarchy, eg. Louis XI became the first King.
(ii) Absolutist ruler as King ruled under this system.
(iii) Standing army, permanent bureaucracy and national level of taxation were the main features of that government.
(iv) It has been called a modified form of feudalism because a number of conflicts and movements were launched against this system.
What was the features of humanist thought?
Features of humanist thought
- There was much to be learnt which religious teaching alor could not give.
- Antiquity was a distinctive civilisation which could be best understood through the actual words of the ancient Greeks and RomAnswer: It rendered with classical culture.
- Latin word humanit as from which humanity was derived, had been used to mean a culture.
- Subjects like grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history and moral philosophy fall under the study of humanities.
- Discussion and debates were necessary to develop skill in humanities.
Giovanno Pico Della Mirandola, a humanist writes in his On . The Dignity Of Man— “For (Plato and Aristotle), it was certain that, for the attainment of the knowledge of truth” they were always seeking for themselves,
nothing is better than to attend as often as possible the exercise of debate. For just as bodily energy is strengthened by gymnastic exercise,so beyond doubt in this wrestling place of letters, as it were, energy of mind becomes far stronger and more vigorous.
Write a careful account of how the world appeared different to seventeenth century EuropeAnswer:
Changes in the world appeared to Europeans
(i) The thinkers like Galileo exhibited that knowledge is distinct than belief because observation and experiments are must to attain knowledge but Bible on conjucture, lights the road to heaven however, nothing it says how the heavens work. Likewise thoughts slackened the influence of Church on public life.
(ii) Humanism was considered subjective hence, classified in humanities i.e. subjects like grammer, rhetoric, poetry, history and moral philosophy. It was understood in the meaning of culture- unconnected to religion. Discussion and debates were understood, an instrument to grow the crop of skills.
In brief, scientific approach of observation, presumption, application, generalization thereby i conceptualisation i.e. precedent processes to arrive at conclusion with reconcilated replication; had begun to sprout, in the mental world of the masses. There were logic, argument, discretion and judgement in that changed world.
(iii) There were universities in the changed world as witnessed . by seventeenth century EuropeAnswer: Italy was the root of renaissance.
(iv) Public awareness towards reading ancient authors and understand through the actual words of ancient Creeks and Romans— was created.
(v) Education programmes were implemented launched giving stimulus to go beyond mere religious teaching and learning process specially read physiology, Chemistry, Biology, Physics etc. natural sciences.
Conclusion—The seventeenth Century Europeans witnessed. Three Order system of Feudal society under Church ruined, scientific approach promoted, humanism gradually took the place of religion, republics developed, several mysteries about earth, the sun and other planets got their manifestation. It was really a different world to seventeenth-century Europe.