CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 3

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 3

These Sample Papers are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 3

Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum Marks : 80

General Instructions

  • The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  • Marks are indicated against each question.
  • Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are Very Short Answer Type Questions. Each questions carries one mark.
  • Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
  • Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Question number 26 is a map question. It has two parts 26(A) and 26(B). 26(A) of 2 marks from History and 26(B) of 3 marks from Geography. After completion attach the map inside your answer book.
  • There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided in some questions. You have to attempt only one of the alternatives in all such-questions.

Question. 1.
What does the term ‘absolutist’ refer to ?
How has the Maritime Silk Route useful for Vietnam ?

Question. 2.
Name the autobiography of Rassundari Debi.
Mention two features of Devaki Nandan Khatri’s Chandrakanta’.

Question. 3.
What is open cast mining ?

Question. 4.
What are the basic elements of democracy.

Question. 5.
What would the lender do in case the borrower fails to repay the loan ?

Question. 6.
Ford motors, an American company, is one of the world’s largest automobile manufacturers with production spread over 26 countries of the world. The company wants to develop Ford India as a component supplying base for its other plants across the globe. Would you say Ford Motors is an MNC ? Why ?

Question. 7.
People make complaints about the lack of civic amenities such as bad roads, poor water supply and health facilities, but no one listens. Now the RTI Act gives you the power to question. Do you agree ? Discuss.

Question. 8.
“The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area of Balkans.” Justify.
Who was Paul Bernard ? Why did he believe in developing the economy of the colonies ?

Question. 9.
Why is ‘Godan’ considered an epic on Indian peasantry ? Explain.
“Leading Indian novelists of the nineteenth century wrote for a national cause.” Do you agree with the statement ? Justify your answer.

Question. 10.
Explain any three reasons responsible for water scarcity in India.

Question. 11.
Ramlal is a farmer in poor state of Bihar. Due to uncertainties in farming, he does not want his son to become a farmer. There are hundreds of farmers like Ramlal who do not want their sons to become a farmer. Find out the reasons.

Question. 12.
Explain the meaning of decentralisation. Also discuss provisions that have been made towards decentralisation in India after the constitutional amendment in 1992.

Question. 13.
“Democracies lead to a peaceful and harmonious life among citizens.” Support the statement with suitable examples.

Question. 14.
What are public interest pressure groups ? Describe their functioning.

Question. 15.
The countries of the Middle-East have very high per capita income due to revenues from crude oil but they are otherwise not developed. Inspite of high per capita income why countries of Middle-East are not so called developed ? What factor other than income are important aspects of development ?

Question. 16.
Imagine that you are the head of your village. In that capacity, suggest some activities that you think should be taken up under MGNREGA that would increase the income of people. Discuss.

Question. 17.
What are Special Economic Zones (SEZs) ? Write two characteristics of Special Economic Zones (SEZs).

Question. 18.
What legal measures were taken by the government to empower the consumers in India ?

Question. 19.
‘India had a vibrant trade in cotton and silk till the mid of 18th century ? How did the network of Indian textile come to an end ? Give two reasons. Name the new ports which replaced the earlier ports.
“By the first decade of the 20th century, a series of changes affected the patttern of industrialisation in India.” Support the statement with examples.
How far is it correct to say that, ‘The First World War was the first modern industrial war’ ? Explain.

Question. 20.
“Nationalism spreads when people to believe that they are all part of the same nation”. Justify the statement.
Analyse the role of merchants and the industrialists in the civil disobedience movement.

Question. 21.
Name the integrated steel plants of India. What are the problems faced by this industry ? What is India’s present position with regard to manufacturing and consumption of iron and steel ?

Question. 22.
“Roadways still have an edge over railways in India.” Support the statement with arguments.
How has the distribution pattern of the railway network in the country been largely influenced by physiographic and economic factors ? Explain with examples.

Question. 23.
How does communalism take various forms in politics ? Explain any five.

Question. 24.
Why is it believed that political parties need to face and overcome the challenge of dynastic succession to remain effective instruments of democracy ? Explain.
‘Modern democracies cannot exist without political parties’. Examine the statement.

Question. 25.
Sarita works in the agricultural fields, Ramesh works as a mechanic in Tata Motors, and Ritu works at a call centre located in Gurugram. How can the economic activities of Sarita, Ramesh and Ritu be classified ? Do you think this classfication is useful ?
Rekha is engaged in fishing and selling them in the market. Name the sector in which Rekha is working. Though this is the largest employer in India why does it produce only a quarter of the GDP ?

Question. 26.
(A) Two features (a) and (b) are marked on the given political outline map of India.
Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 3 1

(a) The place where move¬ment of Indigo Planters began.
(b) The place where cotton mill workers went in Satya- grah.
(B) Locate and label the following with appropriate symbols.
(i) A Dam on river Krishna.
(ii) Iron ore exporting port.
(iii) Tarapur nuclear power plant.


Answer. 1.
The term ‘absolutist’ refers to the following points :

  1. A government or a system of rule that has no restraints on power exercised.
  2. A form of monarchical government that was centralised.
  3. A form of government that is repressive.

The Maritime Silk Route was useful for Vietnam as it:

  1. helped import and export of goods.
  2. business experties in diverse fields and more plentiful opportunities.

Answer. 2.
Amar Jiban was the autobiography written by Rassundari Debi. It was published in 1876. It was the first auto biography written by an Indian woman published in Bengali language.
Following are the two features of Devaki Nandan Khatri’s Chandrakanta :

  1. It is a romance with dazzling elements of fantasy.
  2. It had contributed immensely in popularising the Hindi language and the Nagari script.

Answer. 3.
Open cast mining : It is a surface mining in which minerals are extracted from a shallow depth without a subsurface tunneling. In this process the minerals are extracted by removing the overlying materials from the surface. It is safe because there is no risk of gas explosion while extracting the minerals.

Answer. 4.
A formal constitution, regular elections, political parties and constitutional rights are the basic elements of democracy.

Answer. 5.
If the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender has the right to sell the asset or collateral used for borrowing.

Answer. 6.
Yes, Ford Motors is an MNC because of the following reasons :

  1. It owns or controls its production units in many countries, with its head office in USA.
  2. It does different operations related to its business at different locations across the globe.

Answer. 7.
Yes, I agree that RTI gives us the power to find out how the government departments work so that we can approach the concerned administration agency which will repair the bad roads, ensure adequate and clean water supply or improve the health facilities. The RTI Act helps us to aproach the concerned department to get the work done.

Answer. 8.
The Balkan region became a source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 because of the following reasons :

  1. The Balkans consisted of regions of modern day. Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia—Herzegovina, Slovenia and Montenegro and their inhabitants were broadly known as Slavs.
  2. When the Ottoman Empire collapsed, it initiated nationalism in the Balkans states. Soon the feeling of nationalism spread and the situation became very unstable. The Ottoman empire tried to control the situation by strengthening itself through modernisation and internal reforms but all efforts went in vain.
  3. Gradually, its European nations got separated and fought for independence and political rights. In the race of expanding their territories and to impose their supremacy on each other, Slavic nationalities quickly got into severe clashes. As a result, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. Matters were further worsened because, the Balkans also became the part of big power rivalry. During this period, there were intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military rights.

Thus, each power-Russia, Germany, England, Austria and Hungary was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area. This led to continued series of wars in the region and finally, the First World War broke out in 1914.
Paul Bernard was a great French writer and policy-maker, who suggested a model to develop the French colonies. He was a believer of development of colonies and supported the idea that economic development of the colony was the only method which could help in serving the interests of the mother country.

Bernard’s ideas for the development of the economy were :

  1. He strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed and argued that the purpose of gaining control over colonies was to make profits.
  2. If the economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would be able to buy more goods.
  3. As a result, the market would expand which would lead to better profits for French business.

Answer. 9.
Godan is a Hindi novel by Munshi Premchand, translated into English as “The Gift of a Cow”. It was published in 1936 and remains Premchand’s best known work. The novel tells the moving story of Hori and his wife Dhania; a peasant couple. Landlords, money lenders, priests and colonial bureaucrats all those who hold power in society, form a network of oppression and rob their land making them landless labourers. Yet, Hori and Dhania retain their dignity to the end.

Godan is considered an epic on Indian peasantry because of the following reasons :

  1. This novel touched the soul of Indian peasantry of that time, filled with powerful characters drawn from all levels of society.
  2. As a progressive writer, Premchand fights against social injustice in all forms. In Godan, he shows his deep sympathy for the poor labourers, peasants, woman and oppressed persons of the society.
  3. In ‘Godan’ Premchand gives a realistic portrayal of the Indian peasantry and presents a portrait gallery of contemporary Indian society.

In ‘Godan’ Hori is such a victim of this cruel and heartless system. The novel tends to assume the form of an epic of a common man and his everyday life and expresses the rapid socio-cultural changes in modern society. Thus, ‘Godan’ deals with the epic struggle of the Indian peasantry.
(i) Yes, I agree with the statement as many historical novels were written about India’s glorious past. They were written about Marathas and Rajputs which produced a sense of pan-Indian belonging. They imagined the nation to be full of adventure, heroism, romance and sacrifice. Bhudev Mukhopadhya’s Anguriya Binimoy (1857) was the first historical novel written in Bengal.

Bankimchandra’s Anandamath was about a Hindu militia that fought against the Muslims to establish a Hindu Kingdom. It was a novel that inspired many freedom fighters.

Writers like Premchand, wrote novels which included various classes. Premchand created characters who believed in a comihunity based on democratic values. He made us think of social issues like caste oppression. Thus, all the above writers wrote for a national cause.

Answer. 10.

  1. India witnessed industrialisation after independence, the establishment of large industrial houses and an increasing number of industries has exerted tremendous pressure on the fresh water resources.
  2. An increase in the number of Urban centres with dense population has also exerted pressure on water resources. Many houses and societies have independent water supply system which have lowered the water level.
  3. The deterioration of the quality of water due to industrial and domestic wastes has resulted in the scarcity of water in India. The failure of people to realise the importance of rain water harvesting has also made water a scarce resource.

Answer. 11.
Indian farmers do not want their sons to become a farmer because of the following reasons:

  1. The share of agriculture in India’s GDP has been declining since 1951 and so, farming has a bleak future in terms of income.
  2. Land reform laws have been enacted more than 40 years ago, but their implementation is inadequate resulting in unimproved condition of small farmers. Also the exploitation by middlemen is continuously increasing resulting in farmers not getting a remunerative price for their produce.
  3. Irrigation is still inadequate in many parts of the country which make the farmers depend on the monsoons. A bad monsoon can spell doom for the crop,

Answer. 12.
When power is taken away from Central and State government and given to local government, it is called decentralisation. A major step towards decentralisation was taken in 1992. The constitution was amended to make third-tier system of the government more powerful and effective. As a result, rural local self-government, i.e., Panchayati Raj came into existence. It was made for the following objectives :

  1. To provide third-tier system of the Panchayati Raj for all the states having population of over 20 lakhs and to hold panchayat elections regularly at the lapse of every 5 years.
  2. To provide reservation of seats for Scheduled castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs) and other Backward Classes (OBCs) and to appoint State Election Commission to conduct panchayats and municipal elections. Here at least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.

Answer. 13.
Democracy leads to a peaceful and harmonious life among citizens as it gives a sound political system based on social equality to its citizens.

We can prove the statement by citing the following instances :

  1. Democracy provides a conducive political environment to citizens for their popular participation in policies. Every citizen has the right to vote and right to contest election.
  2. Democracy stands for equal economic status to all citizens. It ensures that the rights of the people are protected by the state thereby, the government functions according to the law.
  3. In democracy, government undertakes extensive social welfare schemes to achieve universal literacy rate. In the social sphere, democracy tries to help its citizens to lead a peaceful and harmonious life by accommodating various social divisions and providing social equality to its citizens.

The support for the idea of democracy is overwhelming all over the word and is evident from South Asia.

Answer. 14.
Public Interest Group : Public interest groups or public interest pressure groups are those groups which seek to promote the interests of the large section of society, not only for its members.

Functioning of public interest group :

  1. Sometimes the members of a public interest group may undertake those activities that benefit them as well as others.
  2. They represent some common or general interest that needs to be defended. Hence, they promote collective good rather than selective good.

For example : BAMCFF is an organisation largely made up of government employees who campaign against caste discrimination. But its main concern is with social justice and social equality for the entire nation.

Answer. 15.
The countries of the Middle-East have very high per capita income due to revenues from crude oil, but they are otherwise not developed in every sector (except Israel). Their literacy rate, life expectancy at birth and other similar parameters do not match with those of developed countries of the west.

The Middle-East countries are not so developed because of the following reasons :

(i) The probable reason is that they have become rich nations recently due to sharp increase in the price of oil, but their society has not developed accordingly. Most of the wealth is accumulated in few hands. So, the society has widespread inequality.
(ii) Though income is one of the most important aspects of our lives, but there are other important factor also. These are :

(a) People also seek equal treatment, freedom, security and respect.
(b) Women need safe and secure environment to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.
(c) People also need political rights and also seek a pollution-free environment.

(iii) These countries are not considered as developed because they lack other basic facilities such as health care and education, without these basic facilities people of a country cannot contribute much to the national income and thus, no development takes place.

Answer. 16.
Being a village head, I can suggest many activities that would increase the income of people under MGNREGA scheme. These are :

  1. Water conservation and water harvesting.
  2. Drought proofing by digging tube wells.
  3. Making provision of irrigation facility on the lands of disadvantaged sections SCs, STs and others.
  4. Constructing irrigation canals, renovation of traditional water bodies (e.g., tanks).
  5. Additionally, Land development for agriculture, horticulture, etc., can be done.
  6. Constructing check dams for flood control. Construction of roads for improving rural connectivity to provide all weather access to the villages. It can also be considered a beneficial activity to increase the income of people.

Answer. 17.
The goverment of India has set-up industrial zones to attract the foreign investment in India, which are known as Special Economic Zones.

The following are the two characteristics of Special Economic Zones :

  1. These zones are expected to have world-class infrastructure such as electricity, water supply, roads, transport, storage, recreational and educational facilities.
  2. Companies setting up their production units in the SEZs are exempted from the payment of taxes for the initial five years. Additionally, government has also allowed flexibility in the labour laws to attract foreign investment.

Answer. 18.
Legal measures taken by the government to empower the consumers in India are :

  1. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 : The major step taken by the government in this regard was the enactment of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 under which a consumer can appeal in state and national courts, even if his case has been dismissed at the district level.
  2. Consumer Courts : These courts have been set-up to provide justice to the people who were treated unfairly in the market place. The consumers have been given the right to represent themselves in consumer courts. ,
  3. Right to Information Act : This Act was passed in 2005 to ensure citizens all information about the functioning of government departments.

Answer. 19.
India had a vibrant trade in cotton and silk till the mid-18th century. By the 1750s, this network was controlled by Indian merchants and was broke down because :

  1. The European Companies Gradually Gained Power : These companies first secured a variety of concessions from local courts, then they acquired the monopoly rights to trade. This resulted in a decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly through which local merchants had operated. Exports from those ports fell dramatically, the credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up and the local banker slowly went bankrupt.
  2. Decaying of Surat and Hoogly Port : While Surat and Hoogly ports decayed, Bombay and Calcutta port started to grow. This shift from the old ports to the new ones was an indicator of the growth of colonial power. Trade through the new ports came to be controlled by European Companies and was carried in European ships. While many of the old trading houses collapsed, those wanted to survive had to now operate within a network shaped by the European trading companies.

New Ports : The new ports that took place in Surat and Hoogly were Bombay and Calcutta.
By the first decade of twentieth century, a series of changes affected the pattern of industrialisation in India in the following ways :

  1. As the Swadeshi movement gathered momentum in India, the nationalists mobilised the people to boycott foreign cloth and other goods. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests and pressurised the r government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions also.
  2. In 1906, the export of Indian yarn to China declined. So, the Indian industrialists shifted their interest from yarn to cloth production leading to considerable production of cotton piece goods.
  3. The beginning of First World War created a new situation. Since British mills were busy in producing war materials to meet their own war needs, export of goods to India declined. This gave an opportunity to Indian industries to thrive. Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.
  4. As the war continued, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs for example, jute, bags, saddles, etc. New factories were set-up and old ones ran in multiple shifts.
  5. After the war, industries in Britain got a severe setback. However, in India local , industrialists gradually consolidated their position substituting foreign manufactures and capturing home market. Handicraft production also expanded in the 20th century.

The First World War was said to be the first modem industrial war. For the first time, it saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc., on a massive i scale. During this time, the world experienced an economic and political instability. The First World War was too horrible like none other before.

Two main characteristics of this war were :

  1. To fight the war, millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and moved to the front lines on large ships and trains.
  2. The scale of death and destruction was devastating, 9 million people were dead and 20 millions were injured, which was not possible without the use of industrial arms.

The first world war was called the first modern industrial war due to the following reasons:

  1. The end of the First World War led to a profilic growth in the industry sector, mass production took place to feed and clothe the soldiers at war.
  2. It led to many technological breakthroughs in terms of weapons and other warfare, that boosted the steel and iron industry around the world.
  3. At the end of this war, many new companies and industries were established for sustainable recovery, thus, the First World War was also called the first modern industrial war.

Answer. 20.
The spreading of nationalism took place due to following factors :

  1. United Stmggle : Different religious groups and communities unitedly struggled against the British rule.
  2. Cultural Processes : Unity spread through various cultural processes like history, folklore, songs and symbols that helped in spread of nationalism.
  3. Common Identity : The painting of ‘Bharat Mata’ was commonly identified as motherland and affected the people equally.
  4. Revival of India Folklore : Reviving the folklore through folk songs, legends helped in promoting traditional culture and restore a sense of pride in the past history and culture.
  5. Role of the Leaders : Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru aroused the feelings of nationalism through their motivational speeches and political activities. Thus, it can be concluded that nationalism spread, when people began to believe that they were all part of the same nation.

Indian merchants and industrialists made huge profits during the First World War.

The following points analyse the role of merchants and the industrialists in the Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1. They became powerful in the society and wanted to expand their business. So, they started opposing colonial policies that restricted their business.
  2. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and rupee sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
  3. These indsutrialists criticised colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement at its first stage.
  4. They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
  5. Most industrialists thought ‘Swaraj’ as a time when colonial restriction did not exist on business world, as a result trade and business would flourish without constraints.

Answer. 21.
An integrated steel plant at large level handles everything in one complex from assembling of raw material and melting of iron ore in the blast furnace to steel making, rolling and shaping. Steel plants are usually concentrated near the sources of raw materials and market.

Four major steel plants in India are :

  1. Indian Iron and Steel Company, IISCO located at Bumpur, West Bengal.
  2. Tata Iron and Steel Company, TISCO at Jamshedpur, Jharkhand.
  3. Bhilai Steel Plant, located at Bhilai in Chhattisgarh.
  4. Bokaro Steel Plant, at Bokaro, Jharkhand.

Though India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world, we are not able to perform to our full potential.

Following challenges can be attributed to this :

  1. Capital : Iron and Steel Industry requires large capital investment which developing country like India cannot afford.
  2. Lack of Technology : Indian Steel Industry was characterised by a high degree of technological deficiency. This resulted in lower levels of investment in technological developments.
  3. Shortage of Metallurgical Coal : Although India has huge deposits of high grade iron ore, many steel plants are forced to import metallurgical coal. For example, steel plant at Visakhapatnam has to import coal from Australia.
  4. Inferior Quality of Products : Lack of modern technological and capital inputs and weak infrastructural facilities lead to the process of steel making extra time consuming, expensive and yields inferior variety of goods. Such a situation forces us to import better quality steel from abroad.

Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the situation and take the country out of desperate position.

Today, India ranks ninth among the world crude steel producers with 32-8 million tonnes of steel production. It is the largest producer of sponge iron. In spite of a large quantity of production of steel, per capita consumption of steel per annum in India is very low.

Answer. 22.
Roadways are the most important means of transport in India. India has one of the largest networks of roadways in the world, aggregating about 2-3 million km. Road transport has preceded railways and still have an edge over it in view of the ease with which it can be built and maintained.

Road transport is more useful than railway on account of the following merits :

  1. Construction and maintenance cost of roads is much lower than the railways. Also roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
  2. Roads can negotiate higher gradient of slope and can traverse mountainous regions such as the Himalayas. They can reach remote villages and hilly regions where railway tracks cannot be laid.
  3. Roads provide door to door service. Thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
  4. Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transportation. For example, they provide a link between railway stations, airports and sea ports.
  5. They link the villages, towns and cities with the railways. They provide linkage between ports and markets and trading centres.


  1. Physiographic factors : Level lands of the Northern plains of India with high density of population, rich agricultural resources and greater industrial activities have favoured the development of railways in this region. The regions, therefore, have the densest network of railway in India.
  2. The rugged terrain of the Himalayan mountain region in the north and north¬eastern states with sparse population and lack of economic opportunities is unfavourable for the construction of railway lines thereby, railway network is lacking in these regions.
  3. Sparsely populated sandy deserts of Rajasthan, hilly contiguous stretch of the Sahyadri, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand, the Flood plains of Bihar and Assam have posed great difficulty in laying of railway lines.

Economic Factors :

  1. State funding plays a vital role in the development of railways.
  2. The places that are highly industrialised attract the development of railways.

Answer. 23.
Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community. It can take various forms in politics :

  1. Communalism in Everyday Beliefs : The most common expression of communalism is in everyday beliefs. Communalism routinely involve religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions.
  2. Communalism as Majoritarian Dominance and Political Dominance : A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community for those belonging to majority community, this takes the form of majoritarian dominance. For those belonging to the minority community, it can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit.
  3. Communalism as Political Mobilisation : Political mobilisation on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism. This involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeals and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena.
  4. Communalism in the Form of Communal Violence : Sometimes communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots, and massacre. For instance, India and Pakistan suffered some of the worst communal riots at the time of partition in 1947.
  5. To sum up, communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either, one of them has to dominate the rest or they have to form different nations.

Answer. 24.
All over the world, people express strong dissatisfaction about the performance of the political parties. In order to remain effective instrument of democracy, political parties need to overcome some challenges. These are :

  1. The first challenge is the lack of democracy within parties. All over the world, there is a tendency in political parties towards the concentration of powers in the hands of one or few leaders at the top. Parties do not keep membership registers, do not hold organisational meetings and do not conduct internal elections regularly.
  2. The second challenge is dynastic succession where the top positions of a party are always enjoyed by members of one particular family. This trend is harmful for other members of the party as well as for democracy. This tendency is present in some political parties all over the world.
  3. The third challenge is about the growing role of money and muscle power in parties which is specially observed during elections. Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties always have say on the policies and decisions of the party.
  4. The fourth challenge is that parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters. In our country, the differences among all the major parties on the economic policies have reduced. Sometimes, the same set of leaders keep shifting from one party to another, thus people have no option available to them.
  5. When the political parties will be able to overcome these challenges only then the people of a country will lead a peaceful life.


  1. Modern form of democracies also need representatives from various political parties to form the government and to keep a check on the ruling party by being in opposition.
  2. Without political parties, there would be chaos and turmoil in the society.
  3. Existence of political parties in a representative democracy ensures that the country runs as per its policies and ideologies and has a responsive and accountable government that is answerable to the people.
  4. Without political parties, elected candidates will be independent and accountable to their constituency for what they do in the locality.
  5. Political parties are required so that a country is governed as per set ideologies and will be responsible for how the country will run.

Answer. 25.
The economic activities of Sarita, Ramesh and Ritu can be classified into primary, secondary and tertiary activities respectively.

The classification is useful due to following reasons :

  1. The classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary sectors is useful as it provides information on how and where the people of a country are employed.
  2. Also, this helps in ascertaining as to which sector of economic activity contributes more or less to the country’s GDP and per capita income.
  3. If the tertiary sector is developing much faster than the primary sector, it implies that more measures should be taken to increase productivity in agriculture sector.
  4. The knowledge that the agriculture as a profession is becoming unpopular or regressive can only come through the classification of economic activities.

Hence, it is necessary to classify economic activities into these three sectors for smooth economic administration and development.
Rekha is engaged in primary sector of economy. It is the largest employer in India. About 51% of the total population is engaged in primary sector in one way or the other. It contributes to only 17% of the country’s GDP. At the time of Indian independence this sector had the biggest share in the Gross Domestic Product. But by » years its contribution goes on declining and currently it contributes only 17% of the total GDP. This sector produces

only a quarter of the GDP because of the following reasons:

  1. Productivity in the primary sector is very low because of the use of outdated means of production.
  2. Since many people are engaged in agriculture, and land being very limited resource, the average holdings of a farmer is less. Thereby, it cannot produce the desired output.
  3. Primary sector lacks modern irrigational facilities. Dependence on monsoons adds to the problem.
  4. The govenment has not been able to provide an effective system of financing and transportation in the rural areas.
  5. Getting credit/insurance for farmer is very difficult. The risk factor associated with giving loan to a farmer is very high. This makes farmers dependence on local money lenders for credit who charge exorbitant interest rates. So there comes the problem in accessing the market facilities.
  6. All these factors result in the backwardness of Indian agriculture, hence, its contribution in India’s GDP is very less,

Answer. 26.
The answer map is given below.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 3 2

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