These NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 7 Conservation of Plants and Animals Questions and Answers are prepared by our highly skilled subject experts to help students while preparing for their exams.
Conservation of Plants and Animals NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 7
Class 8 Science Chapter 7 Conservation of Plants and Animals Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers
Fill in the blanks:
a. A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called ……………….
b. Species found only in a particular area is known as ……………….
c. Migratory birds fly to far away places because of ………………. changes.
a. wildlife sanctuary,
b. endemic species,
Differentiate between the following:
a. Wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve
|Wildlife sanctuary||Biosphere reserve|
|1. It is an area within which animals are protected from the possible dangers such as hunting. Their habitat is also conserved in this area.||1. It is a large protected area constructed for the conservation of biodiversity.|
|2. It provides protection and suitable living conditions to wild animals.||2. It helps in the conservation of various life forms such as plants, animals and micro-organisms.|
b. Zoo and wildlife sanctuary
|1. Zoos are smaller places having some animals protected for public view.||1. Wildlife sanctuaries are larger places having wild animals in their natural habitat.|
|2. It is an artificial habitat.||2. It conserves the natural habitat of animals.|
|3. It provides protection only.||3. It provides protection and suitable living conditions to wild animals.|
c. Endangered and extinct species
|Endangered species||Extinct species|
|1. It is a population of species that is on the verge of becoming extinct.||1. Plants and animals which no longer exist on earth are called extinct species.|
|2. Blue whales, tigers, leopards, etc., are examples of endangered species.||2. Dodo, passenger pigeon, etc., are examples of extinct species.|
d. Flora and Fauna
|1. It refers to all the plants living in a particular area.||1. It refers to all the animals living in a particular area.|
|2. Sal, teak, mango, etc., form the flora of Pachmarhi biosphere preserve.||2. Leopard, wolf, wild dog, etc., form the fauna of Pachmarhi biosphere reserve.|
Discuss the effects of deforestation on the following:
a. Wild animals
c. Villages (Rural areas)
d. Cities (Urban areas)
f. The next generation
a. Wild Animals: When forests are cut, the natural habitat of animals is destroyed. Without their natural habitat, the animals are left with no place to live and breed. As a result of this, many animals are on the verge of their extinction.
b. Environment: Environment is adversely affected by deforestation as ecological balance is disturbed. Carbon dioxide is not absorbed by plants and it gets accumulated in the atmosphere leading to global warming. It increases the temperature of the earth and disturbs the water cycle.
c. Villages (Rural areas): The villagers depend on forests for their basic needs. They are closely related to forests. Due to deforestation, various wild animals run to nearby villages and cause danger to people living there. Also, villagers will not get sufficient fruits, fuel and wood due to deforestation.
d. Cities (Urban areas): People in urban areas may not get sufficient products, for which raw materials come from forests. Reduction in farm output results in rise of price of food items.
e. Earth: The whole earth is full of various ecosystems which together make up the biosphere. Deforestation disturbs the balance in the biosphere. It disturbs climatic patterns, natural habitats, etc.
f. The next generation: The next generation will be the biggest sufferer because of deforestation. They will find drastic seasonal and climatic changes. Natural calamities like droughts and floods will become more frequent. Air quality will be very poor. They will also find very little vegetation and wildlife on the earth.
What will happen if:
a. we go on cutting trees?
b. the habitat of an animal is disturbed?
c. the top layer of soil is exposed?
a. Mindless cutting of trees will result in deforestation. This will result in various kinds of damage to the environment. It will result in global warming, increased cases of floods and droughts. It will also result in many wild animals getting wiped off the earth.
b. If the habitat of an animal is disturbed, it will suffer from shortage of food and space to live. Many wild animals would enter human settlements in search of food. Instances of clash between humans and wild animals will be on rise. A complete destruction to habitat may even lead to the extinction of that animal species.
c. The soil will become deficient in humus and important nutrients. In the long run, the soil will become infertile. The whole area would become a desert in due course of time.
Answer in brief:
a. Why should we conserve biodiversity?
b. Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why?
c. Some tribals depend on the jungle. How?
d. What are the causes and consequences of deforestation?
e. What is Red Data Book?
f. What do you understand by the term migration?
a. A healthy biodiversity is necessary to maintain a healthy ecosystem. This is important for our survival. Hence, we need to conserve biodiversity.
b. In spite of various laws, it is difficult to completely stop the poaching of wild animals. Moreover, environmental damage in the surrounding areas can harm even the protected forests. Hence, it can be said that protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals.
c. Tribal people have been living in or around the jungle since ages. They use most of the forest produce for their day-to-day needs. For example, they use firewood as kitchen fuel, bamboo to make houses and many useful items, medicinal plants to treat diseases, etc. They also take various items from forests to sell them into the market in order to earn some money. Thus, tribals depend on the jungles in a significant way.
d. Following are the causes of deforestation:
- Procuring land for cultivation.
- Building houses and factories.
- Making furniture and using wood as fuel.
- Clearing land for making roads, railway lines, dams, etc.
- Grazing cattle.
Following are the consequences of deforestation:
- Reduced forest cover increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This results in global warming.
- Reduces groundwater level.
- Reduces rainfall.
- Reduces soil fertility.
- Can result in severe droughts or in excess floods.
- May also lead to desertification.
e. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) first came with the Red Data Book. It is a sourcebook which keeps record of all the endangered plants and animals. Each country publishes its own version of Red Data Book from time to time.
f. The long distance movement undertaken by animals to escape the harsh climatic conditions of an area is called migration. Many birds and animals migrate long distances during unfavourable seasons. Human beings also migrate in search of livelihood. Siberian crane migrates from Siberia to India during winters to escape the harsh conditions in Siberia and to get comfortable climatic conditions and food in India.
In order to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter, trees are being continually cut. Is it justified to cut trees for such projects? Discuss and prepare a brief report.
The question arises a conflict between development and conservation. But when we keep in mind the need for sustainable development, it becomes necessary to strike a balance between development and conservation. If we keep on clearing forests in the name of economic development, a time will come when there will be no forests left. That will be disastrous for the environment. All efforts should be done to prevent clearing of forests as much as possible. If clearing of trees is at all necessary, suitable measures should be taken for reforestation at alternate locations to compensate for the loss of trees.
How can you contribute to the maintenance of green wealth of your locality? Make a list of actions to be taken by you.
We can help in maintaining the green wealth of our locality in the following ways:
- By practising horticulture and floriculture.
- By practising afforestation.
- Motivating people so that they do not destroy their green surroundings for more space and other requirements.
- Bringing awareness among citizens regarding the importance of conserving our environment.
Explain how deforestation leads to reduced rainfall.
Plants help in bringing rain by recycling moisture from the soil. Plants absorb water from the deeper layers of soil. This water is released into the atmosphere as water vapour by the process of transpiration. This helps in bringing rain. In the absence of forests, there will be no significant transpiration, hence cloud formation will be affected. This will ultimately reduce rainfall.
Find out about national parks in your state. Identify and show their location on the outline map of India.
Do it yourself.
Why should paper be saved? Prepare a list of ways by which you can save paper.
Paper is made from wood pulp. This means that trees need to be cut down to make paper. However, paper can be recycled many times. Recycling of paper helps in saving trees. This will save our environment. We can save paper in the following ways:
- Use every page of notebook for writing and never leave a page blank.
- Use pencil wherever possible so that your writing can be erased to make the pages reusable.
- Do not waste paper by making paper planes.
- Use old envelopes and pamphlets for doing rough calculations during solving mathematics problems.
- Reuse old envelopes and packets.
- Use notebooks of recycled paper for rough works.
Complete the world puzzle.
1. Species on the verge of extinction.
2. A book carrying information about endangered species.
5. Consequence of deforestation.
1. Species which have vanished.
3. Species found only in a particular habitat.
4. Variety of plants, animals and microorganisms found in an area.
2. Red Data Book
NCERT Extended Learning Activities and Projects
Plant at least five different plants in your locality during this academic year and ensure their maintenance till they grow.
Do it yourself.
Promise yourself that this year you will gift at least 5 plants to your friends and relatives on their achievements, or on occasions like birthdays. Ask your friends to take proper care of these plants and encourage them to gift plants to their friends on such occasions. At the end of the year count the plants that have been gifted through this chain.
Do it yourself.
Is it justified to prevent tribals from staying in the core area of the forest? Discuss the matter in your class and note down the points for and against the motion in your notebook.
Points in favour of the motion: Yes, it is justified since the core area of a forest (biosphere reserve) is a legally protected ecosystem. Endangered plants and animals are kept here. In case tribals are permitted to stay in the core area of the biosphere reserve, they would disturb the animals and plants residing there, thus defeating the main purpose of creating a biosphere reserve.
Points against the motion: It is not justified because forests are the livelihood and habitat of tribals. They have very deep knowledge of forests and also care to preserve them. They depend on forests for their daily needs, livelihood, culture, etc.
Study the biodiversity of a park nearby. Prepare a detailed report with photographs and sketches of the flora and fauna.
Do it yourself.
Make a list of the new information you have gathered from this chapter. Which information did you find the most interesting and why?
In this chapter, we found the information about the following topics:
Deforestation and its consequences, conservation of forests and wildlife, flora and fauna and their habitats, protected areas (wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves), endemic species, endangered species, extinct species, Red Data Book, migration of animals and birds, recycling of paper, and reforestation.
Recycling of paper and ways of saving paper may be regarded as the most interesting information as by saving papers we can contribute towards saving the environment to some extent.
Make a list of various uses of papers. Observe currency notes carefully. Do you find any difference between a currency paper and paper of your notebook? Find out where currency paper is made.
Paper is used in making notebooks, envelopes, newspapers, tissue papers, currency notes, for recording any statement and so on. Normal paper is made from the cellulose found in trees while currency paper is made from cotton and linen fibers. Currency paper is thin compared to normal paper. India imports currency paper from NATO (North Altlantic Treaty Organisation) countries but mostly from United Kingdom (NATO member) and Germany (NATO member).
Karnataka Government had launched ‘Project Elephant’ to save Asian elephants in the state. Find out about this and other such campaigns launched to protect threatened species.
Project Elephant (PE), a centrally sponsored scheme, was launched by the Karnataka Government in February 1992 to provide financial and technical support to major elephant bearing states in the country for the protection of elephants, their habitats and corridors. It also seeks to address the issues of human-elephant conflict and welfare of domesticated elephants. The Project is being implemented in 13 States/Union territories, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
Other such campaigns launched to protect the threatened species are Gir Lion Project, Crocodile Breeding Project, Rhino Conservation, Snow Leopard Project, Chiru Conservation, etc.
Objective: To understand the factors disturbing biodiversity.
Procedure: List the factors disturbing the biodiversity of your area. Some of these factors and human activities may disturb the biodiversity unknowingly. List these human activities and discuss how these can be checked.
Observation: There are various factors which can disturb the biodiversity of an area. The big factors are cutting of trees and using the forest land for construction and industrialisation. Excessive rains or droughts also affect the biodiversity of an area. Certain human activities which give rise to polluting end products also disturb the biodiversity. When plants and animals do not get clean environment, they die.
The government conserves our forests and wildlife: The government lays down rules, regulations and policies to protect our forests and wildlife. Besides, it also earmarks rich flora and fauna habitats as protected areas where the activities like cutting down trees, grazing cattle, hunting, plantation and cultivation, poaching (illegal killing or capturing wild animals), etc., are prohibited.
Biosphere Reserve: A biosphere reserve is an area which aims to conserve the biodiversity of the area as well as its culture. It may contain other protected areas within it. For example, Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve has a national park called the Satpura National Park and two wildlife sanctuaries called the Bori Wildlife Sanctuary and the Pachmarhi Wildlife Sanctuary.
Wildlife Sanctuary: A sanctuary is an area where animals are protected from any disturbance to them or their habitat. In a wildlife sanctuary, poaching (killing) or capturing animals is strictly prohibited. Sanctuaries have given protection to many endangered species like black buck, white eyed buck, elephant, golden cat, pink-headed duck, gharial, marsh crocodile, python, rhinoceros, etc.
Some of the well known sanctuaries in India are Gir wildlife sanctuary in Gujarat, Periyar wildlife sanctuary in Rajasthan, etc.
National Park: A national park is an area which is reserved for wildlife, and where wildlife can freely use the habitat and natural resources. Satpura National Park is the first reserve forest of India. Rock shelters and rock paintings are also preserved along with the flora and fauna. Some famous national parks of India include Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand, Ranthambhor National Park in Rajasthan, etc.
Objective: To learn about the functions of a zoo.
Procedure: Visit a nearby zoo and observe the conditions provided to the animals. Compare these conditions with their natural habitat.
Observation: The conditions provided to animals in a zoo are artificial. Animals are kept in cages for the purpose of public view. Animals live happily and comfortably only in their natural habitat.
Project Tiger: Project Tiger was launched in 1973 to protect and conserve tigers in India. This project was aimed at protecting the Bengal Tigers. Project Tiger has been successful in improving the population of tigers in India. At present, there are more than 2,000 tigers in India.
Red Data Book: The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) first came with the Red Data Book. It is a sourcebook which keeps record of all the endangered plants and animals.
Migration: Long distance movement by animals to escape harsh climatic conditions is called migration. Many birds and animals migrate long distances during unfavourable seasons. For example, Siberian crane migrates from Siberia to India during winters to escape harsh conditions in Siberia and to get comfortable conditions and food in India.
Recycling of Paper: Paper can be recycled many times. As paper is made from wood pulp, recycling of paper helps in saving trees.
Reforestation: Planting trees to recover forests is called reforestation. Reforestation can take place naturally as welt as by human intervention.
Forest (Conservation) Act: The Forest (Conservation) Act of Indian parliament came into effect in 1980. This Act aimed at the preservation and conservation of natural forests and meeting the basic needs of the people who live in or near the forests.
Class 8 Science Chapter 7 Conservation of Plants and Animals Additional Important Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is desertification?
Conversion of fertile land into desert is called desertification.
What is biosphere?
The part of earth where all living organisms are present is called biosphere. It is a narrow zone between atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.
What are the natural causes of deforestation?
The natural causes of deforestation are forest fires and severe drought.
What is biodiversity?
The variety of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) existing on the earth comprises biodiversity.
What do you understand by fauna?
The animal species found in a particular area are collectively termed as fauna.
What is the function of a biosphere reserve?
A biosphere reserve helps to maintain the biodiversity and culture of an area. One biosphere reserve may contain other protected areas in it.
What is a species?
A group of population capable of interbreeding is called a species.
What is an extinct species?
A species which no longer exists on earth is called an extinct species, e.g., species of dinosaurs, dodo, etc.
What is the role of a national park?
A national park helps in preserving the flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects of an area.
What do you mean by endangered species?
Species which are under the threat of extinction are called endangered species, for example, elephants, lions, wild buffalo, etc.
Name the first reserved forest of India.
Satpura National Park.
What are migratory birds? Give examples.
The birds who cover long distances to reach another land for finding suitable climatic conditions are known as migratory birds, e.g., bar-headed goose, Arctic tern, Siberian crane.
Define seed banks.
A seed bank is a place where seeds are preserved under controlled conditions to maintain their viability or germinating capacity and to preserve the genetic diversity.
Short Answer Type Questions
What do you understand by endemic species? Give some examples.
Species which are found exclusively in a particular area are called endemic species. Sal and wild mango are the flora endemic to Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. Bison, Indian giant squirrel and flying squirrel are the fauna endemic to this region.
State some factors which can lead to the extinction of an endemic species.
Following can lead to the extinction of an endemic species:
- Destruction of natural habitat.
- Introduction of an exotic species.
- Increase in population and urbanisation.
What are the features of the members of a species?
Members of a species show the following features:
- They look similar.
- They can interbreed.
- They can produce fertile offsprings among themselves only.
How does deforestation reduce rainfall on one hand and lead to floods on the other hand?
The cloud formation for rain depends on the water lost by the plants through transpiration and evaporation. So, when the number of trees is reduced, there is a decrease in humidity. Hence, proper cloud formation does not occur and the rainfall is reduced. On the other hand, water holding capacity of the soil is adversely affected by the reduction in the number of trees.
The soil structure also changes. The roots of trees grown deep into the land, firmly bind the soil particles together and help in absorption and underground seepage of flowing water. However, in the absence of trees, soil loses its water holding capacity. In this situation, when there is a heavy rainfall, the water does not seep down into the ground and is not absorbed by the soil. Hence, it flows out and leads to floods.
What is Project Tiger?
The Project Tiger was launched on 1st April, 1973 by our government to protect the tigers of our country. Its main objective was to ensure the maintenance of a viable population of tigers in our country.
What are the two reasons for migration of animals?
Following are the reasons for migration of animals:
- Unfavourable climatic conditions
- Lack of food
- Breeding and spawning
- Habitat destruction
How does deforestation cause global warming?
We know that plants take up carbon dioxide and release oxygen during photosynthesis. This helps in maintaining the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere. Deforestation results in loss of green cover on the earth. Due to less number of plants, the level of carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide traps solar energy and thus leads to an overall increase in the global temperature. Thus, deforestation causes global warming.
Write any three functions of a biosphere reserve.
Functions of a biosphere reserve are as follows:
- It helps to maintain the biodiversity of that area.
- It helps to maintain the culture of that area.
- It prevents the commercial exploitation of the area.
Why was IUCN established?
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources was established by the United Nations to promote the conservation of wildlife and habitats as part of the national policies of member states.
How does deforestation lead to a decrease in the water holding capacity of the soil?
Forests drop organic matter on the surface of soil. This organic matter holds a lot of water. Also, the trees have roots which go deep into the soil. When these roots die and rot, they leave holes in the soil and channels for water to get into the soil. Hence, due to deforestation all these phenomena stop and soil loses its water holding capacity.
Why is it important to conserve forests?
It is important to conserve forests because forests:
- maintain the level of CO2 in the atmosphere.
- bind the top layer of soil, thereby increasing its fertility.
- help in absorbing rainwater and thus, preventing floods.
- maintain the water cycle.
- serve as a natural habitat for various species.
Can a forest regenerate naturally in a short period of time?
Reforestation (i.e., regeneration of a forest) can take place naturally by leaving the deforested area undisturbed for some time. During this period, the forest re-establishes itself without the interference of human beings by the natural growth of trees. This process, however, takes many years.
Why are wildlife sanctuaries important for the conservation of plants and animals?
In a wildlife sanctuary, killing and capturing of wild animals is strictly prohibited. Any human activity which disturbs the wild animals and plants or their habitat is not allowed. So, in these areas, animals live in their natural environment protected from any human interference. This is why, sanctuaries are important for conservation of plants and animals.
Why are endemic organisms in greater danger of becoming extinct?
Endemic organisms are confined to a limited geographical area. They cannot adapt or live outside their natural habitat. This means that any disturbance to their habitat will adversely affect them. Thus, they are in a greater danger of becoming extinct.
What is the unique feature of the biodiversity found in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve?
The biodiversity found in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve is similar to that of the upper Himalayan peaks and to that belonging to the lower Western Ghats. Thus, it is unique.
How does recycling of certain things help in saving our environment?
Plastic, paper, glass and metals can be recycled easily. Their recycling helps in saving our environment in the following ways:
- Recycling helps in saving land as we do not require large land area for dumping waste.
- Recycling prevents the faster depletion of natural resources.
- Recycling prevents pollution of land, water and air.
What are the causes of extinction of wildlife?
Causes of extinction of wildlife are:
- Indiscriminate cutting of forests which destroys their habitat.
- Large scale mining and raising of huge buildings and dams which disturbs the natural habitat of many animals.
- Natural calamities such as droughts, floods and forest fires have made many of the rare species extinct.
- Indiscriminate hunting and poaching of animals.
What type of animals are much more in danger of becoming extinct?
The smaller animals are much more in danger of becoming extinct than the bigger animals. People kill snakes, frogs, lizards, bats and owls ruthlessly without realising their importance in the ecosystem. They might be small in size but their role in the ecosystem cannot be ignored. They form a part of food chains and food webs.
Long Answer Type Questions
Explain the different types of protected areas.
Different types of protected areas are as follows:
a. Sanctuary: An area where animals are protected from any disturbance to them or their habitat is called a sanctuary. Poaching (killing) or capturing an animal is strictly prohibited in a wildlife sanctuary. Some examples of wildlife sanctuaries are Bharatpur bird sanctuary, Gir sanctuary, etc. Some examples of threatened species which are protected in wildlife sanctuaries in India are: black buck, white eyed buck, elephant, golden cat, pink headed duck, gharial, marsh crocodile, python, rhinoceros, etc.
b. National Park: Areas reserved for wildlife where they can freely use the habitat and natural resources are called national parks. Satpura National Park is the first reserve forest of India. Other examples are Corbett national park, Kariranga national park, etc.
c. Biosphere Reserve: Large areas of protected land for conservation of wildlife, plant and animal resources and traditional life of the tribals living in that area are called biosphere reserves, e.g., Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve, Nitgiri Biosphere Reserve, etc.
Discuss five methods of forest conservation.
Five methods of forest conservation can be:
- Planned harvesting, i.e., cutting only some of the trees in an area. The uncut trees prevent soil erosion and produce seeds so that new trees can grow.
- Afforestation (or Reforestation), which means renewing a forest by planting seedlings or small trees of the same species as found in that forest.
- Protection from forest fires by spraying fire extinguishing solutions from aircrafts.
- Protection from insects and pests by using insecticides and fungicides and removing infected trees.
- Protection from overgrazing to protect the growing plants by providing pastures which can be obtained as by products from agricultural fields.
Discuss the steps necessary for wildlife conservation?
The steps necessary for wildlife conservation are:
a. Habitat preservation: Preserving the habitat of wildlife helps in their conservation. Preventing deforestation is an important method of habitat preservation. Afforestation provides shelter and food for the wildlife.
b. Hunting regulations: Government regulations related to hunting and their effective implementation is very important for wildlife conservation. The hunting of endangered species is completely banned.
c. Biosphere Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks: To effectively implement the methods of conserving forests and wildlife, the government has set aside permanent protected areas for conservation of biodiversity in that area. These include biosphere reserves, national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. They provide protection and suitable living conditions for wild animals and plants. Living organisms can breed and multiply in these areas.
Differentiate between afforestation and deforestation.
The difference between afforestation and deforestation is summarised below:
|1. Afforestation is the planting of trees in a previously barren environment.||1. Deforestation is the clearing of forests and using that land for other purposes.|
|2. Afforestation has a beneficial effect on the environment.||2. Deforestation leads to global warming, reduces groundwater level, rainfall and soil fertility. It can result in droughts and floods.|
|3. The main reason for afforestation is to control carbon footprint and to ensure sustainability of the natural environment.||3. Deforestation is a result of industrialisation, globalisation and urbanisation.|
|4. Afforestation ensures balance and survival of all life forms on the earth.||4. Deforestation, if left unchecked, leads to global warming, rising sea levels and encroachment or possible extinction of wildlife.|
Draw a labelled diagram depicting the greenhouse effect.
Identify the following map and name two wildlife sanctuaries and a national park.
The map shows the Pachmarhi biosphere reserve.
Two sanctuaries are: Bori and Pachmarhi. The national park is Satpura national park.