These NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 9 The Living Organisms and their Surroundings Questions and Answers are prepared by our highly skilled subject experts to help students while preparing for their exams.
The Living Organisms and their Surroundings NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 9
Class 6 Science Chapter 9 The Living Organisms and their Surroundings Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers
What is a habitat?
The surroundings where animals dwell in comfort zone is called a habitat. The animals depend on their habitat for their shelter, food, water and other needs. Example: Lion lives in a forest.
How are cactus adapted to survive in a desert?
A cactus is able to survive in a desert as it is adapted to hot and dry condition of the desert. To survive in a desert, the cactus has the following adaptations:
- It has long roots that go deep inside the soil for absorbing water.
- Its leaves are present in the form of spines to prevent water loss through transpiration.
- Its stem is covered with a thick waxy layer to retain water.
Fill up the blanks
a. The presence of specific features which enables a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat is called ……………….
b. The habitats of the plants and animals that live on land are called ………………. habitats.
c. The habitats of plants and animals that live in water are called ………………. habitats.
d. Soil, water and air are the ………………. factors of habitats.
e. Changes in our surroundings that make us respond to them are called ……………….
Which of the things in the following list are non-living?
Plough, Mushrooms, Sewing machine, Radio, Boat, Water hyacinth, Earthworm
Plough, Sewing machine, Radio and Boat.
Give an example of a non-living thing which shows any two characteristics of living things.
Car is an example of non-living thing which shows characteristics of living things.
- It can move from one place to another.
- It also requires energy just like living things.
Which of the following non-living things were once part of a living thing?
Butter, Leather, Soil, Wool, Electric Bulb, Cooking oil, Salt, Apple, Rubber
Butter, leather, wool, cooking oil, apple and rubber were once part of a living thing.
List the common characteristics of the living things.
Some common characteristics of the living things are:
- They require food.
- They respire and excrete waste material.
- They respond to stimuli in their environment.
- They reproduce to maintain their number.
- They move from one place to another.
- They grow and die.
Explain why speed is important for survival in grasslands for animals that live there. (Hint: there are few trees or places for animals to hide in grasslands habitats.)
In grasslands, mainly grasses are found. Trees are very few in number. Predators such as lions, tigers, etc., that feed upon other animals are commonly found in these regions. It is very easy for these predators to locate their prey in grass.
Therefore, to protect themselves from these predators animals adapt themselves by increasing their speed. The increased speed of the animals help the weaker animals to escape their predator, thereby protecting themselves and increasing the chances for their survival.
NCERT Extended Learning Activities And Projects
Many magazines and newspapers talk about possibility of life outside the Earth. Read these articles and have a discussion in the class about what could be defined as life outside Earth.
Do it yourself.
Visit a local zoo and find out what special arrangements are made for the animals that have been brought there from different habitats.
Do it yourself.
Find out where are the habitats of the polar bear and the penguin. For each animal, explain two ways in which it is well adapted to its habitat.
Both polar bears and penguins are found in polar regions covered with snow. They have thick fur and fatty layer under their skin to protect them from cold. They are also good swimmers as swimming keeps their body warm. They have the body colour that helps them in hiding in the white background of the snow.
Find out which animals live in the foot-hills of the Himalayas. Find out if the types and varieties of animals and plants changes as one goes higher into the mountain regions of the Himalayas.
Snow leopards, takins. musk deer, red pandas, tigers, black bear, elephant, shrews, giant panda, golden eagle, alpine, etc., are found in this region. The biodiversity changes with change in altitude.
Make a habitat album. Try to obtain pictures of animals and plants that you have listed in Activity 1 (of NCERT textbook) and paste these under different habitat sections in the album. Draw the leaf shapes and structures for trees found in these different regions and include these in the album. In addition, draw the patterns of branching found in trees of these different regions and include these also in the album.
Do it yourself.
Objective: To show the effect of some abiotic factors on the germination of seeds to form young plants.
Material Required: Moong seeds, water.
- Take some moong seeds.
- Keep some dry moong seeds completely submerged in water for a few days.
- Keep them soaked in water for a few days.
- Keep the soaked and wet moong seeds in sunlight for a few days.
- Keep some soaked and wet moong seeds in a completely dark place for a few days.
- Keep some soaked and wet moong seeds in a very cold place, like a refrigerator, for few days.
- Observe them carefully.
Observations: After a few days we will observe that:
i. The dry moong seeds do not germinate at all due to the lack of water and water is essential for the germination of seeds.
ii. The moong seeds submerged in water also do not germinate showing that air is also necessary for the growth of plants.
iii. The wet moong seeds kept in sunlight germinate and grow maximum showing that the sunlight is necessary for the growth of plants.
iv. The wet moong seeds kept in dark place do not grow at all.
v. The wet moong seeds kept in very cold place grow very slow showing that the temperature (heat or warmth is necessary for the growth of plants).
Conclusion: The abiotic factors such as water, air, sunlight and temperature are very important for the growth of plants.
A habitat can be classified into three major types:
i. Terrestrial Habitat: Terrestrial habitat is the habitat for living beings who live on land, for example, humans.
ii. Aquatic Habitat: Aquatic habitat is the habitat for living beings who live in water, for example, fish.
iii Aerial Habitat: Aerial habitat is the habitat for living things who spend most of their life in air, for example, birds.
- Adaptation: Adaptation is the presence of some specific features in the body which help a plant or an animal to live or survive in a particular condition. For example, camel is adapted to live in desert whereas penguin is adapted to live in very cold places near water.
- Xerophytes: Xerophytes are the plants like cactus, agave, etc., which grow in deserts or in very dry places where there is scarcity of water.
- Nocturnal: It is an adaptation in many desert animals who remain inactive during day time and become active during the night to prevent the loss of water from their body.
- Hibernation: Hibernation is the long sleep for eight to nine months in a year. Certain animals hide themselves in burrows with gelatinous secretions and hibernate for long time.
Some major terrestrial habitats are described below:
i. Deserts: These-ere extremely hot and dry habitats with scarcity of water. There are desert animals like rats and snakes, which do not have long legs like a camel has. To stay away from the intense heat during the day, they stay in burrows deep in the sand and come out only during the night, when it is cooler. Desert plants lose very little water through transpiration as the leaves in desert plants are either absent, very small, or they are in the form of spines. Photosynthesis in these plants is usually carried out by the stems. The leaves and stem of desert plants is also covered with a thick waxy layer, which helps to retain Most desert plants have roots that go very deep into the soil for absorbing water.
Objectives: To show that a desert plant such as cactus loses very little water through transpiration.
Materials required: A potted cactus plant and a potted leafy plant.
- Take a potted cactus plant and a potted leafy plant and tie some parts of both the plants with polythene bags separately.
- Keep both the plants in sunlight for few hours.
- Observe both the plants for a few days.
Observations: Only a very small amount of water droplets are present in the polythene bag tied to the cactus plant but more water drops are present in the polythene bag tied to the leafy plant.
Conclusion: Because of the process of transpiration, the cactus plant loses very little water.
ii. Mountains: These habitats are normally very cold and windy. In some areas, snowfall may take place in winters. The trees in such areas are normally cone shaped and have sloping branches with needle-like leaves. This helps the rainwater and snow to slide off easily. Animals living in the mountain regions have thick skin or fur to protect them from cold. For example, yaks have long hair to keep them warm. Snow leopard has thick fur on its body. The mountain goat has strong hooves for running up the rocky slopes of the mountains.
iii. Grasslands: These are the places covered with wide fields of grasses and sometimes forests. Animals like lion and deer are found in grasslands. Lions have long claws in their front legs and is light brown in colour. It helps it to hide in dry grasslands when it hunts for prey. The eyes in front of the face allow it to locate its prey accurately. A deer also lives in grasslands. It has strong teeth for chewing hard plant stems of the forest. It has long ears to hear movements of predators. The eyes on the side of its head allow it to look in all directions for danger. The speed of the deer helps them to run away from the predators.
Some major aquatic habitats are described below:
i. Oceans and seas: These are large water bodies that have saline (salty water). Sea animals have streamlined bodies to help them move easily in water. There are some sea animals, like squids and octopus, which do not have streamlined shape. They stay deeper in the ocean, near the seabed. Sea animals have gills to help them use oxygen dissolved in water. Dolphins and whales breathe in air through nostrils or blowholes that are located n the upper parts of their heads. This allows them to breathe in air when they swim near the surface of water. They can stay inside the water for a long time without breathing.
ii. Ponds and Lakes: These are small freshwater bodies. In aquatic plants, roots are much reduced in size and their main function is to hold the plant in place. The stems of these plants are long, hollow and light. The leaves and flowers, float on the surface of water. Some aquatic plants are completely submerged in water. Some of these plants have narrow and thin ribbon-like leaves. Frogs can stay both inside the water as well as move on land. They have strong back legs that help them in leaping and catching their prey. They have webbed feet which help them swim in water.
Characterises of Living organisms:
- Food: All living organisms, whether plans or animals, eat food to get energy to live.
- Growth: All living beings grow with times. Plants grow from a seed into a big tree.
- Response to stimuli: Changes in the surroundings are called stimuli. Living organisms react to various stimuli.
- Movement: All organisms moves. Humans and animals can move from one place to another. Plants move by bending towards light or curling their leaves as in mimosa plant.
- Respiration: Respiration is the process in which food taken by an organism combines with oxygen to release energy. In this process carbon dioxide is given out.
- Excretion: Excretion is the process of removal of waste substances from the body of living things.
- Reproduction: Reproduction is the process by which living things produce more organisms of their own kind. This process takes place in many different ways, for different organisms.
Objective: To show that living things produce more of their own kind through reproduction.
Materials required: A rose plant.
- Take a cutting from the plant which should have some buds on it.
- Burry its lower part into the soil.
- Observe it for a few days.
Observations: The cutting develops roots and grows into a new plant.
Conclusion: Plants reproduce to give new plants.
Class 6 Science Chapter 9 The Living Organisms and their Surroundings Additional Important Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Name some biotic components of the environment.
Plants, animals, human beings, microorganisms.
Name some abiotic components of environment.
Rocks, air, temperature, water, etc.
What things does a habitat provide to the living organisms?
Food, shelter, favourable climate and conditions to survive.
List out the different types of habitats.
- Terrestrial habitat
- Aquatic habitat
Name a few plants that live in ponds.
Hydrilla, lotus, hyacinth, etc.
Which is the most common adaptation found in all animals living in cold places like mountains?
They have thick skin or fur to protect themselves from cold environment.
Name two aquatic plants which are completely submerged in water.
Lily and lotus.
What is common in all fishes?
They have gills, streamlined body, fins and tails.
How does gills help a fish?
Gills help to use oxygen dissolved in water.
Name an animal who uses its skin for the process of respiration.
Name some terrestrial habitats.
Deserts, mountains, grasslands, forests, etc.
Name some aquatic habitats.
Oceans, ponds, lakes, etc.
The process of getting rid of the body waste by the living organisms is known as excretion.
What is reproduction?
The process by which living organisms produce more of their own kind is called reproduction.
What are blowholes?
The organs by which dolphins or whales breathe in air are called blowholes or nostrils.
Short Answer Type Questions
What is the difference between terrestrial habitat and aquatic habitat? Give examples of each.
The habitat of the plants and animals that live on land is called terrestrial habitat. Example, plants like banyan, pine, etc., and animals like elephant, lions, etc., live in the terrestrial habitats.
The habitat of plants and animals that live in water is called aquatic habitat. Example, plants like Hydrilla, lotus, etc. and animals like fish and octopus live in aquatic habitats.
Define the term adaptation.
The presence of specific features of certain habits which enable a plant or an animal to live in its surroundings is called adaptation.
Describe a desert region.
The desert region is very hot in day time and cold at night. A very little amount of water is present in desert. Animals that live in deserts remain inactive during day and become active at night. Camels, lizards, snakes, etc., are some animals that live in desert.
What are the adaptations of fish that make help them to live in water?
- The streamlined body of the fish helps in movement in water.
- The slippery scales/skin on the body of fish protect their body.
- They have flat fins and tails which help them to swim, change direction and to keep the body balance.
- Their gills help them to breathe in water.
What features of mountain goats help them to live in cold climate?
a. The mountain goats have long hair to protect them from cold and keep warm.
b. The mountain goats have strong hooves for running up the rocky slopes of mountains for grazing.
Why do we need abiotic components?
The abiotic components like air, water, light and heat are very important for the growth of plants. These abiotic components are also very important for the growth and the development of animals.
What are the various adaptations of carnivorous animals who live in grasslands?
- Sharp and long claws in their front legs to catch, hold and tear the body of their prey.
- Light brown colour or patchy body helps them to hide them in dry grass.
- The eyes in front of the face help in locating their prey.
- Long and strong canines (front teeth) help them in tearing the body of their prey.
Write the important adaptations for aerial animals.
- They have hollow bones containing air cavities to make the body light.
- Presence of feathers and wings to fly. The forelimbs are modified into wings for flying.
- Eye sight is very sharp.
- Joints in the bones are completely fused.
Write four main characteristics of living things.
- All living things need food to grow and get energy.
- Living things respire to get energy.
- Living things excrete body waste.
- Living things respond to stimuli.
Long Answer Type Questions
What the adaptations of plants who grow in deserts?
The plants that grow in deserts show adaptations in their roots, stems and leaves.
- Roots: Their long roots are spread to the deeper layers of the soil so that water can be absorbed.
- Stem: They have spongy stem to store water. The green stem takes over the functions of leaves. Thick waxy coating of the stem develops to prevent the loss of water due to the intense heat.
- Leaves: Their leaves are reduced to spines in order to reduce the loss of water from the surface of leaves.
Write the adaptations in snow leopard which helps it to live in extremely cold places.
- The thick fur on the body of snow leopard protects it from cold and keeps it warm. It has fur on its feet and toes too. This protects its feet from cold when it walks on the snow.
- The thick layer of fat beneath its skin for insulation protects it from cold.
- Snow leopard has a rounded body and small ears to keep the body surface area to a minimum. This reduces the heat loss from the body of snow leopard.
- The snow leopard has big feet to spread the weight on snow and prevent it from sinking into the soiled snow.
How is a deer is adapted to forest habitat? Explain.
- The deer has eyes on the sides of its head which enable it to see in all directions at the same time. The all round vision of deer helps it to see animals like lion, in all the area around it.
- The deer has big ears for good hearing. The big ears help the deer to hear the movements of predators like lion very easily.
- The deer is fast and agile animal. The speed of deer helps it to run away from the predators like lion which try to catch it.
- The deer has brown colour which helps it to hide in dry grasslands without being noticed by lion, etc.
- The deer has strong teeth for chewing hard plant stems of the forest.
a. Identify the habits A and B.
b. Given an example of an animal found in each of these habitats.
c. Write one adaptation of plants found in each of these regions.
a. A – Desert; B – Mountain
b. Lizard is found in desert and snow leopard on mountains.
c. Desert plants have leaves reduced to spines.
Plants in mountains have needle like leaves.
a. Identify the living organism shown below.
b. What is its habitat?
c. Write one adaptive feature of this organism.
b. Aerial habitat.
c. Its forelimbs are modified into wings that help it in flying.