NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.

Staffing NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6

Staffing Questions and Answers Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6

Question 1.
Briefly enumerate the important sources of recruitment.
Recruitment refers to those set of activities an organization uses to attract job candidates possessing the appropriate characteristics to help the organization achieve its objectives. The sources of recruitment can b. iveniently classified into internal and external sources’.

Internal Sources
These-sources include the employees already on the pay role i.e.present work force. Whenever any new vacancy arises people from within the organization will be upgraded, promoted, transferred or demoted. The process of filling job openings by selecting from among the pool of present work force can be implemented by the following methods.

  • Reviewing the personnel records.
  • Job posting and job bidding.
  • Inside moonlighting and employee’s friends.

Review of the personnel records and skills inventory provides adequate information for the personnel director to find suitable candidates for a particular position. Under job posting and bidding system the organisation notifies its present employees of openings using bulletin boards, and company publication etc. This is more an open approach where every one gets the same right to apply for a job . and bid for the same.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

If the Labour shortage is of short-term nature and great amount of additional Labur is not necessary, then organization employs inside moonlighting.’ It is a technique where organization pays bonus of various types to people not on a time pay roll.

Overtime procedures are in many organizations developed for those on time pay roll. Further more, before going outside to recruit many organization ask the present employees to encourage friends and relatives- to apply.

The internal sources of recruitment have the following merits:

  • Recruitment from within can have significant positive effect on employee motivation and moral when it creates promotion opportunities or premature Layoffs.
  • Internal recruitment improves the moral of employee because they are sure that they would be preferred over the outside competitor’s.
  • Internal recruitment will be easy for the employer as it is easy to evaluate the employees who are currently working.
  • Employees need little training as they know the major operations and functions of the organization.
  • The expenditure is relatively less when compared to outside sources of recruitment.

The internal sources of recruitment are fought with the following:
1. It is not a healthy sign for the organization in the long run as it discourages new blood from entering the organization. The organization may be deprived and benifit of the young talent and experienced employees from outside firms.

2. One disadvantage of internal recruitment has been the widely Published Perier Principle i.e. successful people are promoted until they finally reach a level in which they are unable to perform adequately.

3. The skills of internal employees may become obsolete and the organization may have to resort to outside sources?

4. When promotion is bases on experience and seniority the danger is that really capable men may not be chosen.

5. A final danger involves the inbreeding of ideas when recruiting is only from internal sources precautions must be taken to ensure “we have never done it before like that”, “we do not want to take chance,” or “we do all right without it”.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

External sources

When an organization has exhausted’internal sources or when it finals internal sources to be unsuitable, external sources are used. The methods of recruitment are many – walk-ins, public employment agencies, private employment agencies, Labour unions, educational institutions, professional associations, former employees, military services etc. Let us briefly study these external sources of recruitment.

1. Employment exchange
Employment exchanges and private employment agencies represent common sources of external recruitment. Employment exchanges maintain a detailed record of job-seekers and refers the candidate with appropriate qualifications to the required employers. In India it is obligatory to notify the vacancies Act. Employment exchanges are generally used for clerical and semi-skilled employees.

The exchanges match both the demand and supply forces of Labour, Employment exchanges are instrumental in increasing the mobility, of labour, in eliminating bribery and corruption and in providing occupational guidance, in conducting occupational (Personnel) research, etc.

These days, a large number of private employment agencies have been set up in india. These agencies act as consultants and are consulted for recruiting the technical, professonal and managerial personnel. Private employment agencies, also called search firms or ‘head-hunters’ are found more frequently in big cities.

These agencies usually charge a flat fee for their services or a percentage of the salary earned by the hired employee during the first year/month of the service. Generally private agencies offer specialized recruitment service than do the public (government) employment exchanges.

Employment exchanges are falling into disfavour now a days because the records of employment exchanges’are not kept up to date and many of the candidates referred by the employment exchanges may already have sodght employment else where. Further, the candidates, quite often do not care to inform the exchanges once they secure employment on their own else where. Organization, therefore, find it more expedient to meet their requirements from other sources.

2. Advertising
Companies normally advertise and select the’cream of the crop’. One of the most widly used methods of recruitment is the help- wanted advertisement. Advertisements are commonly placed in daily newspapers, employment news magazines, trade and professional publications. People in large numbers respond to the advertisements and somethings even unqualified and unsuitable people also apply. This method, though popular is therefore time – consuming and heavy expenditures involved in recruiting employees through this method.

3. Educational institutions
Also known as campus recruitment, this method represents recruiting on college and university. These days more and more organizations are relying on-campus recruiting. Organization send the employment circulars to various professional educational institutions to display them on the notice board so that potential candidates/students come to know about the vacancies.

Some professional management and technical institutions have placement cells which act as link between the recruiting firms and prospective student candidates.

4. Employee walkins :-
Another source of recruitment is employee walk-ins. Some people send unsolicited applications to the organization enjoying goodwill and reputation, Generally, the corporate image has a significant impact on the number and quality of people applying to an organization in this manner. The corporate image is highly influenced by

  • Working conditions
  • Compensation policies
  • Employer – employee relation, and
  • Workers participation in management etc. Walk-ins are not popular source of recruitment in India when compared to the developed countries.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

Question 2.
What is meant by recruitment? How is it different from selection?
Meaning of Recruitment:-
Recruitment may be defined as the process of publicising information about job vacancies in the organization and inducing the prospective candidates to offer themselves for appointment in the organization. It is the process of searching for prospective employees and encouraging them to apply for jobs in the organization.

It is an important part of staffing and it is an ongoing process. The objective of recruitment is to procure a sufficiently large number of qualified candidates so that the most eligible employees can be selected. Therefore recruitment is called a positive process.

Recruitment brings together the job giver (employer) and the job seekers (applicants). Recruitment can be done either from inside or from outside the organization.
Thus, recruitment involves the following steps :-

(a) identifying the sources of supply of adequate number and right type of personnel required.- 128 N. D. Study Material
(b) Publicising information about job vacacies in the organization.
(c) Assessing alternative sources of manpower and choosing the best source.
(d) Contacting the chosen sources of recruitment to secure, applications, e.g. advertisement for vacancies in a newspaper so as to stimulate the prospective candidates to offer themselves for employment.

Meaning of Selection
Selection is the process of carefully screening the candidates to choose the most suitable persons for the job vacancies to be filled. Under it the qualifications, experience and background of applicants are evaluated in the light of job requirements. It is the process of dividing the candidates into two categories, namely

  • those who are to be employed, and
  • those who are to be rejected.

It is called a negative process because unsuitable candidates are eliminted or rejected in order to identify the suitable candidates. The number of candidates rejected are much more than those actually selected.

More over, tests, interviews and other techniques of selection are more reliable for rejection of unsatisfactory candidates than for identifying the ideal candidates. Selection is always done after recruitment. The basic purpose of selection is to choose the right type of candidates to fill various positions in the organization.

Selection is a multistep process. It involves a series of steps by which candidates are screened to identify the most suitable persons for the job. Selection is difficult process as it involves discreation and judgement. The selectors have to find out the best possible fit between the job and the candidate. The candidate who meet the job requirements in the most satisfactory manner are finally selected.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

Distinction between Recruitment and selection –
Selection is different from recruitment. Selection involves welding out or eliminating unsuitable candidates. Therefore it is a negative process. On the other hand, recruitment is a positive process because it involves attracting a sufficiently large number Of candidates so that the most eligible employees can be selected.

Recruitment is the first stage whereas selection is the second stage in the procurement of employees. The distinction between Recruitment and selection is explained in the following table

Distinction between Recruitment and Selection

Points of Distinction Recruitment Selection
1.. Meaning Searching prospective employee and stimulating them to apply for jobs. Choosing the candidates having.  necessary qualification.
2. Nature Positive process. Negative process.
3. Aim To create a large poll of candidates. To eliminate all unsuitable candidates.
4. Process Simple as candidates are not required to cross many hurdles. Complex as the  candidates are required to cross several hurdles.
5. Number No restriction upon the number of candidates. Only a limited number of candidates  are selected.
6. Orders It is done prior to selection. It is made only after recruitment.

Question 3.
Define Training. How is it different from education?
Meaning of Training
Training is the process of improving the job knowledge and skills of employees so as to enable them to perform well. It is an organised or systematic activity where in people acquire knowledge and skills for doing a specific job. It is a two-way process because there must be someone to learn and someone to teach.

The purpose of training is to mould the behaviour of people so that they can do their jobs in a better way. In order to achieve this purpose, a training programme is used to improve the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees. Training is the process of imparting information and knowledge to the employees. As an organised activity, training is designed to create a change in the thinking and behaviour of people.

Training is continues
process, because there is no end to learning and a person, has to learn continuously – new technology, new patterns of behaviour and new life styles. Training is necessary for both new as well as existing employees so that they may peform their jobs property. Training also helps employees to make progress in their careers.

Several on – the – job and off – the – job methods are used for training employees. New employees need training to adopt themselves to the new environment and to perform their jobs efficiently. Old workers require in – service – training to update their knowledge and to learn new methods and techniques of doing work. Thus training is a continuous or never- ending process. There is no end to learning.

Distinction Between Training and Education:-

Traning and Education
Training should be differentiated from education though both are elements of the learnings process. Education involves improving the general knowledge and developing on over all under standing of the total environment. For example, a mechanic who repairs the car better than an engineer is only trained. He is not educated because he does not know the principles of engineering.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

Therefore, the scope of education is wider than’ that of training. Secondly the purpose of education is general whereas training has a specific and immediate purpose of making a person proficient in a particular job. The aim of education is to develop the over all understanding and mental capabilities, where as the purpose of training is to improve the knowledge and skills of an individual in doing a particular job more efficiently.

Thirdly education involves formal instruction in a school or college whereas training can be given on the job itself. Fourthly education is generally theoretical whereas training is practical in nature. Lastly, the cost of education is generally paid by the Government and the student. On the other hand, the cost of training is generally borne by the employer.

Points of Distinction Training Education
1. Nature Practical Theoretical
2. Contents Job related General
3. Participants Non-managers Both workers and managers
4. Duration Short : Long
5. Cost paid By the employer By Government and the. individual

Question 4.
Distinguish between training and development.
Training should also be differentiated from Development. Training is the act of improving the knowledge and skills for doing a specific job. On the other hand, development involves growth of a person in all respects. It is the process by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competence in their present jobs but also capabilities for future tasks of increasing difficulty and scope.

Secondly training aims at improving current job performance whereas development seeks to improve future job performance. In other words training is job centered while development is career-band. For instance, an employee may receive training to operate a computer. But he may attend a management course develop leadership skills.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

Training and development programmes may be beneficial to both managers and workers but the contents of the programmes are likely to differ, managers receive instructions in developing leadership skills whereas workers are trained in technical skills.

Points of Distinction Training Development
1. Purpose To make workers proficient in their present jobs. To prepare employees for handling more responsible and challenging jobs.
2, Skills Teaching mainly technical skills. Teaching mainly human and conceptual skills.
3. Participants Meant primarily for non- managerial personnel. Meant primarily for managerial personnel.
4. Focus On developing skills already possessed by workers. On developing hidden qualities and talent of personnel.
5. Methods used On the job training methods such as apprenticeship, coaching etc. Off-the-job training methods such as job rotation, lectures role playing brains forming, sensitivity training etc.
6. Duration Time bound Carter bound. Carter bound.

Question 5.
Why are internal sources of recruitment considered to be more economical?
Internal sources of recruitment considered to be more economical because
1. There are two important sources of internal recruitment transfers and promotion both are economic. As it simplifies the process of selection and placement. The candidates that are already in the working the interprise can be evaluated more accurately and economically.

2. Transfer is a toll of training the employees to prepare them for higher jobs. Also people recruited from within the organisation do not need induction training.

3. Transfer has the benefit of shifting work fore from the surplus departments to those where there is shortage of staff.

4. Filling of jobs internally is cheaper as compared to getting candidates from external sources.

5. Employees are motivated to improve their performance. A promotional at a higher level may lead to a chain of promotion at lower levels in the organisation. This motivates the employees to improve their performance through learning and practice. Employees work their commitment and loyalty and remain satisfied within jobs. Also peace prevails in the enterprise because of promotional avenues.

Question 6.
What is the importance of staffing function in todays environment?
The need and importance of the staffing function of management are as follows.
1. Key function
Staffing is regarded as key function because it deals with human beings. It has been recognised that human resources is one of the most valuables assets for an organisation.

2. Helps in building sound human organisation
Staffing helps in searching for qualified and competent persons, stimulating them to join the organisation.

3. Ensures maximum productivity
By placing the right man at the right job staffing ensures maximum production at minimum of time, effort and cost.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

4. Provides job satisfaction
Staffing provides job satisfaction to the workers by assigning them the job most- suited to their capability and potential.
5. Prepares for future challenges
Through staffing, the management can foreseen and plan its future staff requirements and accordinagly train and develop its workers for assuming future responsibilities.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define the staffing process and the various steps involved in it?
Staffing Process – Steps in staffing process.
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing
The various steps in the staffing process as shown in the above figure are as follows

(i) Prior to staffing :
Before the actual function of staffing starts, a minimum preparation is required. A definite idea should be made of the person who will be responsibly for the staffing function. In formation should also be gathered about the working of the internal and external environment of the business.

(ii) Staffing Plan :
Before the actual work of recruiting and selecting employees takes place a staffing plan should be prepared by the organisation. Human Resource Planning (HRP) is the process by which managers ensure that they have the right numbers and kinds of people in the right places, and at the right times, who are capable of effectively and efficiently performing the assigned tasks. The two most important tabs of Human Resource Planning therefore are

  • assessing current human resources; and
  • assessing future human resources needs and developing a programme to meet those future needs.

(iii) Appropriate Qualifications :
Staffing involves matching the requirements of the job with the qualifications of the persons to be recruited. Hence job requirements are minutely studies and appropriate qualifications for the same are determined in advance.

(iv) Developing Assessment Tests :
On the basis of the qualifications assessment tests are to be developed to measure whether these qualifications are actually poessessed by the candidates. The Assessment Tests should be so devised that they do not focus on single abstract ability and should not create bias in the assessment.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

(v) Locating Potential Applications :
The next step involves locating the potential candidates or determining the sources of potential candidates. Both internal as well as external sources explored may be tolocate the potential candidates for the specified jobs.

(vi) Advertising the job :
Internal sources of finding potential candidates can be used to a limited extent. For fresh talent and wider choice external sources of recruitment are greatly relied upon, for which advertising is a necessary next step.

(vii) Selection Test/Interview :
The next step in the staffing process is to screen the candidates through different methods such as selection test, interviews etc. The objective -of the selection process to find the most suitable person for – the job.

(viii) Deciding and Notifying Applicants :
A final list of candidates who are provisionally selected is prepared for further verification, like price verification character verification, reference check etc. which is necessary for contacting important in formation about them before making a decision in this regard.

(ix) Final selection and placement :
The next step is making a final selection and communicating with the candidates. The selected candidates are then placed in the job. Placement is the process of assiging a specific job to each of the selected candidates. It involves assiging a specific rank and responsibility to an individual and implies matching the requirements of a job with the qualifications of a candidate.

(x) Orientation/Induction :
Orientation is a planned introduction of employees to their jobs their co-workers and the organisation. An initial training programme is provided to all new persons touring an organisation so as to-induct them to the job. It is important to make the new persons comfortable to carry out the assigned job smoothly.

(xi) Training :
There is a continuous need for up gradation of the skills and knowledge of the employees so that they can adopt to the sort changing business environment. It is an attempt to improve the performance of the employee’s by improving their knowledge skills and attitudes.


Question 2.
Explain the procedure for selection of employees.
Selection is a process of weeding out unsuitable candidates and finally arriving at the most suitable candidates. Thus while recruitment is considered as a positive process (or attracting job applicants), selection is a negative process (or rejecting or filtering the applicants).

The main function of the personnel department is to see how personnel are recruited and selected.-Selection is an important process because employees may remain with the firm for a long period of time. Organization spend large amounts in the selection process. There is full justification for such expenditure. The costs of recruitment and training-are considered as investment in ’Personnel’ the return for which will be in the form of contribution made by them toward the output. Selection thus involves drawing a cost-benefit analysis.

Selection procedure is like a sequence of hurdles. Actually . selection is a negative process. It is negative because more will be turned away than hired. Successful candidates leap over the hurdles and arrive at the finish line, whereas the unsuccessful candidates do not. Selection is, thus carried on by this successive hurdles technique. Some times selection is carried by the multiple – correlation technique also.

The multiple correclation technique, which is, less commonly used is based on the assumption that a deficiency in one factor can be ‘ counter balanced by an excess amount of other. That is to say when a battery of tests are conducted by the management in the selection of t employees a low score on the test can be counter balanced by the high score on the other.

Selection process reveals the following steps

1. Recruitment :
Recruitment refers to those activities of an organization used to attract job candidates possessing the appropriate characteristics to . help the organization reach its objectives. Recruitment determines the total number of applicants applying for each position in the organistion.

The recruitment efforts of an organization are continuous. A logical starting point in recruitment is to look within the organisation carefully. Employees who are satisfied with the organisation will feel like recommending their friends, relatives, neighbours etc. But normally organizations try to recruit employees from out side the organization.

There are a number of ways of recruitment of potential employees – such as private employment ” agencies, public employment agencies, school and colleges, adverting, walk-in (walk-ins mean the people who show upto the gate unsolicited) write in (write-ins means the unsolicted job-seeking letters}, applicant files, field recruitment trips, professional associations for placement of employees etc.

2. The Screening Interview :
A brief screening interview is conducted in the early selection process by a big organization. This is-of short duration and may last for about fifteen to twenty minutes. The employment specialist generally asks ‘knock out’ questions and answering these questions in a particular fashion disqualifies the applicant immediately.

For example ‘are you prepared to work overtime is a vital question if the job under consideration involves unexpected increase in the demand for product. If the applicant gets success in the screening interview he will be given a blank application form to fill it up.

3. Blank Application Form :
Another indispensable part of the selection is the job application form. The application blank is essentially a personal history questionnaire. A full-fledged application form furnishes information , about the candidate’s schooling, qualification, experience, special abilities, attitudes, tastes and preferences etc.

The prescribed application form in addition to providing biographical information,also provides some information related to success on the job. How a person complete the form also might give some clues about the person’s organizational ability and intelligence. For instance, a blank completed in a disorganised fashion (i.e. rough writing, may crosscuts, excessive writing in margins, careless hand writing etc.)

might suggest sloppy work habits of the candidate. Though it is not always true, a carefully designed and skilfully interpreted application form is a potent source of information about an individual’s attitudes, his basic motivation drives his emotional adjustment, his relation with other people and his over all ability to function satisfactorily on the job.

4. Psychological Tests :
Though the psychological tests are not the sole method of selection, they are mose frequently employed in almost all organizations. A psychological test is a systematic procedure for sampling human behaviour.

If is designd to measure alertness, achievement special aptitude and physical dexterity etc. of the candidates. The psychological tests are valuable in placing the available candidates in the most suitable jobs.’ These tests take into account such factors as verbal comprehension, numerical comprehension, pursuit, perceptual speed, visualisation inductive reasoning, word fluency, and syntactic evalution. Syntatic evaluation implies the.ability to apply principles to arrive at a unique solution.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

5. Evaluation Interview :
An evalution is perhaps the most important part in the selection process. It attempts to make a careful assessment of the candidates qualifications for the particular task (job). The interview time may range from thirty to fifty minutes. The purpose of interview is to have a good overview of the candidate’s strengths and weaknesses for the position.

Selection interviews are normally conducted in the privacy of an office or a conference room so that the room is quiet and free from interruptions. To relax the candidate and establish support, it is justiciable to spend some time (at least three to five minutes) in warm- up conversation on the part of the interviewer.

An effective interviewer provides the interviewer the reinforcement and encouragement by asking such questions as demographic details (native place and address etc.) and also sports, college experience, etc. after the warm-up period the interviewer shifts to more job-related and subjective questions such as ‘why are you interested in our organization?’ why did you leave the previous job? etc.

As a follow up to these, the interviewer often probes deep into facts by digging for additional details. At the end of the interview each and every candidate (successful as well as unsuccessful) will be thanked for their interest and will be informed that they will be hearing from the organization soon. The organization sends regret letters to the unsuccessful candidates (in some cases they – keep silent about the results) and positive letters of acceptance to the successful counter parts.

6. Background Investigation
Another important part in the selection process is the verification of information obtained from the candidate’s blank application from, selection interview, and the resume he prepares at the end of interview. Normally the candidate is required to state some references (at least two) at the time of filling up the blank application form. Almost all organisation perform some background investigation either by writing or making phone call to the refrees. Background investigation acts as a reference check on the employees.

7. The physical Examination
Medical examination of all the candidates before employment is
a necessary step in the selection process. Nobody is consideted as hired until he has successfully passed every setp of recruitment and selection process. Medical examination is one such step. This step is neccessary for three vital reasons

  • To assure that the applicant is fit to work in the organization (for example, a person with a multitude of hypochondriacla complaints (fits) might not be able to meet the attendance standards of the organization.)
  • To asure that the candidate is physically fit forplacement in a particular job.
  • To provide base against which later physical examination may be compared (this is particularly important disability’ claims that may occur during the job assignments).

8. Placement
After the physical examination is over, the candidate will be given a fitness certificate. The final step, then in the selection process is to give the employment letter to the candidate specifying the place of work gross employments, hours of work etc. It also mentions about the promotional avenues, the rate of increment over a particular time period and the saturated level of pay etc.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

Question 3.
What are the advantages of training to the individual and to the organization?
The need for training of employees arises due to the following factors
(i) Higher Productivity :
It is essential to increase productivity and reduce cost of production for meeting competition in the market. Effective training can help increase productivity of the workers by importing the required skills.

(ii) Quality Improvement :
The customers have become quality conscious and their requirements keep on changing. To satisfy the customers, quality of products must be continuously improved through training of workers.

(iii) Reduction of learning Time :
Systematic training through trained instructors is essential to reduce the learning period. If the workers learn through trail and error, they will take a longer time and even may not be able to learn right methods of doing work.

(iv) Industrial safety :
Trained workers can handle the machines safely. They also know the use of various safety devices in the factory. Thus they are less prone to industrial accidents.

(v) Reduction of Turnover and Absenteeism :
Training treat safeeling confidence in the mindsof the gives them a security at the work place. As a result labour turnover and absenteeism rates are redueced.

(vi) Technology Update :
Technology is changing at pace. The workers must learn new techniques to make use of advanced technology. Thus training should be treated as a continuous process to update the employees in the new methods and procedures.

(vii) Effective Management :
Training can be used as an effective tool of planning and control. It develops skills among workers and prepares them for handling present and future jobs. It helps in reducing the costs of super vision, wastages and industrial accidents. It also helps increase productivity and quality which are the cherished goals of any modern organisation.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

Benefits of Training to the Organisation
Training is beneficial for the organisation as discussed below
(i) Economy in Operations
Trained personnel will be able to make better and economical use of materials and equipments. Wastage will be low. In addition, the rate of accidents and damage to machinery and equipment will be kept to the minimum by the well-trained employees. These will lead to less cost of production per unit.

(ii) Greater Productivity :
A well-trained employee usually shows greater productivity and higher quality of work output than an untrained employee. Training increase the skills of the employees in the performance of a particular job. An increase in the skills usually helps to increase both quantity and quality of out put.

(iii) Uniformity of Procedures :
With the help of training the best available methods of work can be standardised and made available to all employees. Standardisation will make high levels of performance rule rather than the exception.

(iv) Less supervision :
If the employees are given proper training the responsibility of supervision is lessened. Training does not-eliminate, the need for supervision, but it reduces the need for detailed and constant supervision.

(v) Systematic Imparting of Skills :
A systematic training programme helps to reduce the learning time to reach the acceptable level of performance. The employees need not learn by trial and error or by observing other and waste time if the formal training programme exists in the organisation.

(vi) Creation of Inventory of Skills :
When totally new skills are required by an organisation. It has to face great difficulties in employment. Training can be used in spotting out promising men and in removing defects in the selection process. It is better to select and train employees from within the organisation rather than seek the skilled employees from outside sources.

Question 4.
The staffing function is performed by every manager and not necessarily by a separate department. Explain. ‘
Yes, It is a function which all managers need to performIt is a separate and specialised function and there are many aspects of human relations to be considered. It is the job of managers to fill position in their organisation and to make sure that they remain occupied with qualified people.

Staffing is closely linked to organising since after the structure and position have been decided, people are ‘ required to work in these positions subsequently, they need to be trained and motivated to work in harmony with the goals of the organisation thus staffing is seen as an important function of management.

The staffing function deals with the human element of management. Managing the human component of an organisation is the most important task because the performance of an organisation depends upon how will this function is performed. The success of ah organisation in achieving its goal in determined to,a great extent on the competence, motivation and performance of its human resources.

It is responsibility of all managers to directly deal with the select ‘ people to work for the organisation. When the manager performs the staffing function his role is slightly limited. Some of these responsibilities will include placing the right person on the right job, introducing new employees to the organisation, training employees improving their performance, developing their ability, maintaining their moral and protecting their health and physical conditions.

In small organisations, managers may perform all duties related to employees salaries welfare and working conditions.
But as organisation grow and number of persons employed increases, a separate department called the human resource department is formed which has specialists in managing people.

The management of human resources is a specialised area which requires the expertise of many people. The number of human resource specialists and size of this department gives an indication of the size of the business as well.Thus it is true that staffing is a function of every manager.

Application Type Questions Answers

Question 1.
The workers of a factory are -unable to work on new machines and always demand for help of supervisor. The Supervisor is overburdened with their frequent calls. Suggest the remedy.
Supervisor in an organization which acts as a link between workers and management. Supervisor handles the problems of the workers and helps to avoid misunderstanding and conflict between management and workers. But in the above problem, supervisor is4 busy man not in a position for immediate solution to worker to make workable on the new machines installed in the factory.

A skilled and knowledgable supervisor can build efficient team of workers which in his/her absence performed responsibly. A supervisor with good leadership qualities can build up high morale among workers.

Question 2.
The workers of a factory remain idle because of lack of knowledge of hi-tech machines. Frequent visit of engineer is .made which causes high overhead charges. How can this problem be removed.
In this situation, the workers should be trained in such a way that in the absence of engineer, they may handle the high-tech machines. Certain techniques of training like T-Group training, Sensitivity training, programmed instruction can enhance the skills, aptitudes and abilities of workers to perform specific jobs requiring . high-tech know-how.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

Question 3.
The quality of Production is not as per standards. On investigation it was observed that most of the workers were not fully aware of the proper operation of the machinery. What could be the way to improve the accuracy?
Staffing function must be performed efficiently. If right kind of workers are not available or unaware of the changed targets or standards as in the above situation will lead to wastage of materials, time, effort and energy, resulting in iower productivity and poor quality of products. Workers should be given adequate train ing so that wastage is minimum. Workers should be induced to show higher productivity and quality by offering them proper incentives.

Question 4.
An organisation provides security services. It requires * such candidates who are reliable and don’t leak out the secrets of their clients. What step should be incorporated in selection process?
Selection is the process of identifying and choosing the best person out of a number of prospective candidates for a job. In the above problem, candidates should be reliable and kept the secret of the services performed by him as the nature of job required. ‘ Various steps at the time of selecting such candidates are needed such as previous experience of the job, Intelligence tests, aptitude test, trade tests and interest tests, reference and background checks etc.

Question 5.
A company is manufacturing paper plates and bowls. It produces 100000 plates and bowls each day. Due to local festival, it got an urgent order of extra 50,000 plates bowls. Advise how the company will fulfill its order and which method of recruitment would yop suggest.
in the problem under scanning due to festival offer of enhanced output of paper plates and bowls on daily basis, the recruitment of Casual Callers can be a valuable source of recruitment. From the list of such job-seekers can be screened to fill the vacancies due to urgency of the matter as it reduces the cost of recruitment workforce. Another method of recruitment of Direct-workers with the help of notice-board be made on the spot as casual or badli workers.

Case Problem 1

1. A Company X limited is setting up a new plant in India for manufacturing auto components. India is a highly competitive and cost effective production base, in the sector. Many reputed car manufacturers source their auto components from here. X limited is planning to capture about 40% of the market share in India and also export to the tune of at least $5 million in about 2 years of its planned Operation. To achieve these targets it requires a highly trained and motivated work force. You have been retained by the company to advise it in this matter. While giving answers keep in mind the sector the company is operating.

Questions 1.
Outline the process of staffing the company should follow.
As we know and aware, the prime concern of the staffing function in the management process is the timely fulfillment of the manpower requirement within an organisation. These requirements may arise epesodically as in case of starting a new business. The company X limited should follow the following process.

Estimating manpower requirements .


Selecting from among the applicants

Placement and orientation

Training and Development

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

Questions 2.
Which sources of recruitment the company si auld rely upon? Give reasons for your recomendations.
The company should use ‘situation vacant’ advertisement in National news papers and it should be flashed in electronic media also.By giving their advertisement in news papers and on T. V. Company will ’be able to find best brains and talents for the work which they want. Through this source company will be able to find trained persons which will be beneficial for it.

Questions 3.
Outline the process of selection the company should follow with reasons.
The company should follow the following :

  • Training
  • Education
  • Development
  • Market study
  • On the job methods
  • Off the job methods.

Questions 4.
Which methods of training and development should be company initiate? Explain.
As company X limited is setting up a new plant in India. So it will be better for the company to adopt “off Job method”, because it includes the following which all are needed for new employees.
1. Classroom lectures/con frences
2. Films
3. Care study
4. Computer modelling
5. VestibuIetrainiñg
6. Programmed Instructions.

Case Problem 2

2. A major insurances company handled all recruiting, screening and training, processes for data entry/customer service representatives. Their competitor was attracting most of the qualified, potential employees in their market. Recruiting was made even more difficult by the strong economy and the ‘job seeker’s market.’ This resulted in the client having to choose from – candidates who had the ‘soft’ skills needed for the job, but lacked the proper ‘hard’ skills and training.

Question 1.
As an HR manager what problems do you see in the company?
It is a case of lack of training. So correct training process- should take the person who is in need of’soft’ skills should t; trained for the same.

Question 2.
How do you think it can be resolved?
He should give training through off the job method and should be trained with the help of films and case study. As Films can provide information and explicitly demonstrate skills that are not-easily represented by other techniques. It will be very effective method in this case.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

Case Problem 3

3. A Public transport corporation has hired 1000 buses for the different routes for the passengers of metropolitan city. Most of the 3000 crewmen (drivers, conductors, helpers etc.) of these buses have been found to be wanting in satisfactorily dealing with public and daily commuters. They seem to be little interested in the job and the job seem to have lost all meaning to them.

Question 1.
As manager of the public transport company what measures do you suggest to improve the working of crewman in question?
As a manager it is suggested that the employees should give more insentives and should give a handsome increase in their salaries so that should take proper interest in their work.

Question 2.
Is it possible to modify their behaviour by planning a suitable type of training? Suggest one.
Yes, they should give some training programmes as it is to enable the employee to do the job better. It will be better for them to give a training of job rotation.

Case Problem 4

Ms. Jayshree recently completed her Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management. A few months from now a large steel manufacturing company appointed her .as its human resource manager. As of now, the company employs 800 persons and has an expansion plan in hand which may require another 200 persons for various types of additional requirements. Ms. Jayshree has been given complete charge of the company’s Human Resource Department.

1. Point out, what functions is she supposed to perform?
2. What problems do you foresee in her job?
3. What steps is she going to take to perform her job efficiently?
4. How significant is her role in the organisation?
For students practice.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Staffing

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