Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for 11 Political Science Chapter 20 Development Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.
Development NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 20
Development Questions and Answers Class 11 Political Science Chapter 20
What do you understand hytheterm development? Would all sections of society benefit from such a definition of development?
The concept of development has a very wide meaning, although it has been used in narrower sense. It has been used for change, progress, growth and advancement of the society. In the broadest sense of the term the concept of development conveys the ideas of improvement progress, well being and an aspiration for a better life.
The aim of the development is based on the vision of the society’ for the kind of life they wish and plan to lead. Therefore development is a process of various measures taken for the socio-economic and cultural transformation of the society in such a way that the fruits of development and progress reach to the last man in the que.
Lucian Pye “ The Aspects of Development” gives the meaning of development as the process of judicious utilization of the available resources to build a modern society. He explained development in number of aspects like development as change, development as state building, development as nation building, development as modernisation, development as political socialisation, mobilisation and as a process of cultural diffusion and also as the mechanism of modernisation of the society. Its ultimate aim is to make the growth and progress within the reach of every common man. Its purpose is definitely to change the face of every man of every section of the society.
Discuss some of the social and ecological costs of the kind of development which has been pursued in most countries.
In fact the concept of development has been understood differently in different parts of the world, hence it is implemented accordingly which have not produced the desired results in spite of incurrence of heavy financial costs which has put them to enormous debts. Its critics allege that this kind of directionless development has social and environmental costs which can be discussed as under.
1. Social costs of development
In the process of development large number of people have been displaced from their local places in rural as well as urban areas due to construction of big dams, industrial activities and mining activities which has led to more impoverishment and misries of the people. In the wake of this kind of development people are losing their cultural identities and their traditional occupations, which is making people poorer. The disparities and inequalities are on increase.
Such displacement persons have become passively restless and are causing social and political turmoil. The particular examples of Narmada Bachao Andolan against the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada can be referred.
2. Environmental costs of development
Present mode of development has its environmental costs also, it has disturbed the ecological equilibrium and has caused high degree of environmental degradation in many countries. Global warming and green house gases into atmosphere which are fatal for the existence of man “kind are the consequences of this unimaginative mode of development. Tsunami havoc can be referred as the heavy environment cost of this typer of developer
What are some of the new claims for rights whicn the process of development has generated?
New claims as Democratic participation: In democratic framework of society and polity and in the modem age, every one wants to lead a life of better quality. It is therefore that every one like us to be involved in decision making process and in formulating the goals of development and also in the mechanism and machinery of its implementation. It is for the serving the purpose of participation and empowerment.
Development and democracy are concerned with realizing the common good. Democratic polities aims to achieve the rights of the people of common good with the process of development by maximum utilization of the resources and to take the fruits of development to the common man.
Is democratic societies the right of participation of the people has been appreciated and emphasized. One of the method of such participation is suggested to ensure is to allow decision making bodies to take decisions about developmental projects in the local area. It is therefore the powers and resources of the local bodies are being increased.
73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments of the Indian Constitutions.are such steps in this direction. Through these amendments, efforts are being made to ensure the participation of all sections of the society including the weaker sections like women and SCs and STs and backward classes in these local bodies, so that they can initiate the developmental projects.
Involvement in Planning and formulating policies allows people to direct resources towards their needs. Therefore there is need to evolve a model of development which could serve the objective of democratic, modern society of achieving the goal of welfare i.e. common good as conceived in the present modern scientific, technological world.
What would be the advantages of democracy over other forms of government for ensuring that decisions regarding development are made to promote the common good?
Democracy is government of the people, for the people and by the people. It means that the democratic government belongs to people only and ultimate powers rests with the people.
Unlike dictatorship, where power is concentrated in the hands of one person or group of the persons where people do not have any say in the decision making process. It is therefore the democratic form of government is more advantageous over other forms of government, particularly with regard to taking care of common good of the people.
The democratic government is more concerned about the interests, rights and welfare of the people. The democracy is based on following postulates:-
- It is based on equality
- It is based on justice
- It seeks to promote rights of the people
- It promotes liberty
- It promotes brotherhood
- It provides wide consultation
- It is based on discussion, debate and dissent
- It is based on decentralisation of powers
- Ultimate power rests with the people
- Democracy allows fuller expression of the people.
Above features of democracy are available in none other system. It is therefore democratic system of government is more condusive for the realisation of common good than other systems of governance. Democratic culture allows the diffusion of developmental process involving every aspect of life of the people and nations.
In your view how successful have popular struggles like been in making the state responsive to the social and environmental costs of development ? Discuss with examples.
In the name of development the governments of number of states and also central government have undertaken number of ambititious projects in different fields. But these projects have their own social and environmental costs. For example in the Narmada Bachao Andolan etc. the local people under the leadership of social activists and environmentalists like Mega Patekar and Sunder Lai Bahugana have started the agitations against these projects which has resulted in the politicisation of the whole issue.
Some new controversial projects of the government have emerged in recent years. One of such project is SEZ (creation of Special Economic Zone) which has evoked the anger of local farmers which is politicised by the different political parties. The local people have not accepted the new future as a result of such developmental activities. These cause has been taken by the social activists.
Such a movement is Narmada Bachao Andolan has been a leading movement against the Sardar Sarovar Dam which is built on Nannada river for the purpose of generating electricity and will help in irrigating the larger areas of land and will also provide the drinking water to the desert areas of Kutch and Saurastra.
However the opponents of this project disagree with these claims and have been agitating vigorously under the leadership of social activists and environmentalists like Mega Patekar. Such movements have certainly compelled to the governments to think all the aspects of the issue.