Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for 11 History Chapter 4 The Central Islamic Lands Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.
The Central Islamic Lands NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 4
The Central Islamic Lands Questions and Answers Class 11 History Chapter 4
What were the features of the lives of the Bedouins in the early seventh century?
Bedouin’s were nomadic tribes. They used to move from dry to green areas of the desert in search of food and fodder for their camels. Muhammad’s tribe was Quraysh. It owned/controlled main shrine in Mecca. Bedouins had stronger attachment to idols and shrines however, they have external sense that God is supreme like Jewish and Christian tribes. These were one of the tribes in Arab.
What is meant by the term ‘Abbasid revolution’?
It was a revolution called dawa which brought down the Umayyads in 750. It not only overthrew Umayyads dynasty but the political structure and culture of Islam also. Muhammed’s uncle was Abbas and decendants of Abbas were Abbasids.
They spread a myth that a messiah (mahdi) from the family of the Prophet (ahl al-bayt) would liberate them from the oppressive Umayyad’s regime. Besides, they waged war against Umayyad dynasty, the Caliph Marwan was defeated in a battle at the river Zab. Thus, Abbasid revolution was a movement against Umayyad dynasty in which Abbasid dynasty took over the power of the state.
Give examples of the cosmopolitan character of the states set-up by Arabs, Iranians and Turks.
Cosmopolitan character of the states set-up by Arabs, Iranians and Turks
- There were several tribes but all of them accepted the Caliphate system of governance.
- As discrimination usually is found in cosmopolitan character, there were Arab and non-Arab individuals, Sunni and Siyas conflicting each-other.
- Society was ruled by varied canons which were in vogue e.g. claims differently for Calipha, a position of the deputy to God or the Shahenshah.
- Calendar depicts also the cosmopolitan nature of the state. It was Islamic calendar in which new year starts with Hijri.
- There were different languages spoken, different dresses the people wore.
- Islamic society exhibited multiple political and cultural patterns—one of the main features of cosmopolitan.
(b) Iranians —
- Agriculture was main occupation and taxes on land was the main sources of income to coffer.
- Nomaidic tribes gradually came to power in Iran i.e. Parthians, Sasanians.
- Urban centres were the main source of income to exchequer.
- Here also was the Islamic religion in vogue.
(c) Turks —
- Mixed with the Muslims and a different communities, all nomadic tribes.
- Different languages were spoken as the records of Shahenshah’s reveal.
- Fiscal arrangements and coinage were adopted as in other administrations.
On the premises above, we can state that the society during Arab, Iranian and Turks regime was of cosmopolitan nature.
What were the effects of the crusades on Europe and Asia?
Effects on Europe—
- Hostility increased between Christendom and the Islamic world.
- Muslims addressed Christians as firangi.
- Holy land (Palestine) became the bone of contention.
- Salahaldin waged crusade against the Christian.
- Europe suffered severely. It waged crusades but could not save Palestine from the seizure of the Arabs.
Thus, the first effect on Europe was that of the harsher attitude of the Muslim state towards its Christian subjects. The second effect was that of increase in influence of Italian mercantile communities in trade between the east and the west even after the restoration of Muslim power.
(i) Iranian merchants discovered silk route to China.
(ii) Trans Soxiano extended north to Russia and Scandinavia ‘ for the exchange of European goods and Slavic captives. s
(iii) For five centuries, Arab and Iranian traders monopolised the maritime trade between China, India and Europe.
(iv) Manufacture of paper (made from linen) started.
How were Islamic architectural forms different from those of the Roman empire?
|Islamic Architecture||Roman Architecture|
|(i) Mosques, shrines and tombs were built.
(ii) Sahn, Mihrab, minbar, minarets were specifically built attractive.
(iii) Islamic architecture was based on religious buildings.
|(i) Colosseum, aquaducts, Amphitheatres and market places were built.
(ii) Roman mosaic was famous for its splendour.
(iii) It was based on construction of public buildings and palaces like Constantinople.
Describe a journey from Samarkand to Damascus, referring to the cities on the route.
Presently, Samarkand falls under Russia and Damascus and it is a port city near Syria. The cities between this route were Antioch, Aleppo, Samarra, Daylam, Merv and Samarkand. It is confirmed by stating the routes adopted for trading that period.
Iranian merchants set-out from Baghdad along the silk route to China via the oasis cities of Bukhara and Samarkand (Transo Xiana). Trading items were mainly paper and silk. The paper manufacturing and exporting countries were in Central Asia and China.
Bukhara and Samarkand made commercial link from north to Russia and Scandinavia. Fur was the main item of trading from European countries including purchase of captives subsequently, made slaves. Islamic coins have been found by archaeologists along the Volga river and in the Baltic region.