Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for 11 History Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.
Paths to Modernization NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 11
Paths to Modernization Questions and Answers Class 11 History Chapter 11
What were the major developments before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernise rapidly?
Major developments before the Maiji restoration
- Japan was divided into 250 domains.
- Reading habit increased among people.
- Theatres were opened and different arts were rewarded.
- Population increased rapidly in cities and castle-towns.
- Samurai, a particular class recruited for defence services.
- Gold and silver stock depleted due to payment for imports on hard currency.
Discuss how daily life was transformed as Japan developed.
There were schools and colleges for children and youth. People began travelling by train. Joint family system degraded to nuclear family (home) which raised the demand for consumer goods, new form of housing and means of entertainments.
Transport in cities improved with electric trains and public parks were opened from 1873 and departmental stores began to build. Radio station opened in 1925. Theatre and movies started their bulk business. Traditional norms and political behaviour was changed drastically. Japan has now framed strictest environment laws in order to reduce pollution and poisoining (cadmium poisoning, mercury poisoning etc.)
How did the Qing dynasty try and meet the challenge posed by the western powers? ,
The challenge posed by western powers till then arrival of Jesuit missionaries and they started educating the youth on western sciences (viz. astronomy and mathematics) and opium wars during 1839-42 were fought again Britain who forcibly brought the trade in opium in China.
Measures to face the challenge—
- Policies to build a modem administrative system made and it was made powerful.
- Formed new army and developed education system.
- Set-up local assemblies to establish consitutional govt. These were the measures the Qing dynasty adopted in order to evade from colonisation.
What were Sun Yat-Sen’s Three Principles?
The three principles or San min Chui were—
- to overthrow foreign dynasty and foreigner imperialists
- to establish a democratic govt
- to bring in socialism, regulating capital and disbursing of equal land holding.
Did Japan’s Policy of rapid industrialisation lead to wars with its neighbours and destruction of the environment?Answer:
We approve this statement because—
(i) Agricultural tax was imposed on peasants in order to arrange for working capital in factories.
(ii) Rapid industrialisation promoted economy hence, military power was increased and so favoured by the emperor. Schools were made centres for recruitment in military.
(iii) A rule had been made that all citizens shall have to join military over twenty.
(iv) Rapid demand for natural resources like fuel, timber, several metals including iron increased rapidly which resulted in environment degradation.’ Eg. Pollution, poisoining etc.
However, we cannot straightway assume the wars with neighbours had a direct effect on rapid industrialisation because there were several factors responsible for those military campaigns. These were—
- Fear of subordination by the Imperial powers as a colony.
- India and China were neighbours of Japan hence, she had already observed the colonial rules of Britain there. Hence, it was a good step to strengthen military power of the country.
- When a country is in possession of military power, its manifestation or application cannot be ruled out. Hence, Japan had also did experimfent of making her colonies i.e. Taiwan and Korea.
Do you think that Maozedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying the basis for its current crisis?
Maozedong undoubtedly was an intelligent surveyor and analytic of the society as his survey in 1930 was conducted in Xunwn. It states that he studiec| commodities, the prevailing wages of labour for different crafts and religious organisations to examine the different levels of exploitation.
He studied also, the social ills like selling boys at their teens. His base of politics is rural not urban like another party, the Guomindang or National People’s Party. He was the great leader of CCP.
Contribution in Liberty of China
(i) Took rural base and garnered mass support.
(ii) Organised women associations in order to empower them in society.
(iii) Promulgated a new marriage law to prohibit arranged marriages, stopped purchase or sale of marriage contracts and simplified divorce.
(iv) Organised a peasants Council (Soviet)
(v) Carried out land reforms and prepared the mass to fight against imperialism.
This five-prong efforts had bagged strong support of masses to him and he could end its war against N.P.P. or Guomindang.
Current crisis and impact of maoism
(a) An explosion of new ideas
(b) Democracy in demand
(c) Problem of poverty and sexual exploitation
(d) Inequality between social groups, between regions and between men and women causing tensions
(e) Demand for revival of Confucianism (good conduct, practical wisdom and proper social relationship)
Essence of Maoism to be treated as basis of present crisis— It is the definition of a socialist man now being understood for mere ideology and not in practical behaviour. Mao understood socialist man only the person who has love for his fatherland, people, labour, science and public property.
There is patriarchal system of family in Japan while Mao himself had constituted women organisation. Eg. All China Democratic Women’s Federation had 76 million members. This difference between theory and practice itself was contradictory hence, we can say it a foundation stone of current crisis. People there are mis-directed between ideology and professional knowledge.