Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for 11 History Chapter 1 From the Beginning of Time Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.
From the Beginning of Time NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 1
From the Beginning of Time Questions and Answers Class 11 History Chapter 1
Look at the diagram showing the positive feedback mechanism on page 13 (refer to text book). Can you list the inputs that went into tool making? What were the processes that were strengthened by tool making?
The inputs that were into tool making were basically related to the increase in size and capacity of brain. It resulted in visual , surveillance and upright walking before hands free for other tasks to be performed.
The motor-nerves of brain and freedom of main executive organ (i.e. hands) led the primates to develop various kinds of tools and implement useful for foraging and hunting. Tool making strengthened the processes of cutting, scraping, decorating, bruising and folding etc.
Humans and mammals such as monkeys and apes have certain similarities in behaviour and anatomy. This indicates that humans possibly evolved from apes. List these resemblances in two columns under the headings of
(a) behaviour and
(b) anatomy. Are there any differences that you think are noteworthy?
Resemblance of humans and mammals
Basis for analysis— Humans and apes
(a) Behaviour— There is certain resemblance of humans to the apes and monkeys in terms of behaviour. Both of these grip their food in hand and eat the same by using teeth. Both have fingers in their hands and make its multi uses. Sometimes, both of them move bipedal.
- Flexible limbs
- traces of tail are also found in humans
- Hairs on body
- Neck and skull
- Long gestation period following birth
- Mammary glands
- Different types of teeth.
Differences— Besides above anatomical resemblances, there are certain differences in humans and the apes. These differences are that of size of brain, posture (upright), hand-grip etc.
Discuss the arguments advanced in favour of the regional continuity model of human origins. Do you think it provides a convincing explanation of the archaeological evidence? Give reasons for your answer.
The regional continuity model states that it is the effect of living in different regions that evolved at different rates, the archaic Homo sapiens. This argument is based on the regional differences in the features of present day humanHistorians supporting this view say that these dissimilarities are due to differences between the pre¬existing Homo erectus and Homo-Heidelbergenesis populations that occupied the same region.
The argument above provides a convincing explanation of the archaeological evidence because we still see certain features different between people in North India and those living in South. As per archaeological report, hominids are divided into branches genus of which Australopithecus and Homo are important.
The difference between these genus is that of brain size, jaws and teeth viz. Australopithecus has smaller brain size, heavier jaws and larger teeth. Again we see that Australopithecus, early Homo, Homo erectus had developed at the same time in Sub-saharan Africa (i.e.5-lmya) and Homo erectus, archaic Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens-sapiens were developed in Africa, Asia and Europe during lmya to 40,000 years ago.
Which of the following do you think is best documented in the archaeological record:
(b) tool making
(c) the use of fire?
The representation of different stages shows that it is tool making stage of Homo sapiens properly and the best way documented by the Archeologists. We can see a number of pictures showing tools of varied types made for different uses. Styles estimated of the tool making, have also been documented.
Discuss the extent to which
(a) hunting and
(b) constructing shelters would have been facilitated by the use of language. What other modes of communication could have been used for these activities?
As we read, there are different views of development among primates. The hominid language involved gestures or hand movements. Spoken language was preceded by vocal but non-verbal communication such as singing or humming.
According to another view, human speech probably began with calls like the ones that have been observed among primates. Scrutiny of the brain of Homo habilis reveals certain features developed like vocal-tract around 2 lakh years ago.
Whatever the views extended above are, we should confine our answer to the assistance got by primates by the use of language while hunting and constructing shelters. During hunting operation, the primates would have learnt extracting different sounds or tones of the birds or animals of prey.
He would have executed hunting in an organized way viz. making group of people, training to them on manners and methods of hunting including introduction with the birds/animals of prey, planned area, all these act only with the help of language.
Similarly, in course of shelter construction, the primates would have ensured more help from other people with application of the tool of language. Language would have effaced their ignorance, superstition, fear and prejudice and filled their head and heart with skill, expertise, tact and cognition of the components of each and all works.
Other modes of communication with the primates used are- physical gestures (use of fingers, lips, neck, forehead etc.) preguess of sound to be practiced observing them with consecutive results or the effects and through indication of thing analogous to the one needed.
Choose any two developments each from Timelines 1 and 2 at the end of the chapter and indicate why you think these are significant.
Two developments in Time line l(mya)—The first development, we would like to say that of primates conversion into Hominoids (36- 24mya). This anatomical and physiological change could take place after a longer interval of 12mya. Thus, monkey (hominoid) in Africa could become African ape (hominid) our first ancestor.
The second important development is that of change taken place due to Tropical climate formed and Australopithecus turned into the genes Homo. It took time about 3 millions (i.e. 5.6 – 2mya). From here, the human instincts started developing in primates with the fastest pace. The gradual process of anatomical and physiological could complete in further period of three lakh years when we are in present form i.e. Homo sapiens-sapiens.
Two Developments in Time line- II—The first important development, we would say that of development of voice box (vocal chord) in human anatomy far back in 2 lakh years ago. It would have helped greatly the development of skill and expertise in doing things easier than the period, humans had not vocal chord.
As the time line itself is evidence of emergence of modern humans 1,95,000 years ago. That anatomical or biological feature would have made the primates able to construct his languages in order to communicate with his other fellows associated with works and genes.
The second important development in this time line could be construed the period of 21 thousand years ago when sewing needles, the primates could invent. It may be presumed that till then iron and fire would have been invented by the primates. Invention of sewing needle would have brought revolution in the fields of growing cotton, jute, silk etc. fiber crops, weaving, spinning etc.
Industries like tanneries, packaging, tool manufacturing etc. are owed to the invention of sewing needle and human brain circumambulated round it to make use of it for different purposes and creation of something analogous to needle but more yielding and useful.