Characteristics And Scope Of Development Administration
According to Merle Fainsod, Development Administration is a “carrier of innovating values …. it embraces an array of individual functions assumed by development countries for walking on the path of modernisation and industrialization. Development administration ordinarily involves. establishment of machinery for planning economic growth and mobilization and allocating resources to expand national income.
To Harry J.Friedman development administration contains two elements:
→ The implementation of programmes designed to bring about modernity, and
→ The changes within an administrative system which increase its capacity to implement such programmes.
Fred W. Riggs opines that development administration covers the area from the administration of development programmes to the methods used by large-scale organisations, notably government to implement policies and plans designed to meet their development objectives. Mohit Bhattacharya considers “development administration” as an “administrative ideology of the developing countries”. A number of other scholars have also defined and refined the concept. Over the years, its’ meaning has expanded in accordance with the added implications attached to it. As a result, one would find it difficult to precisely define the concept of development administration. At best one can attempt to explain what it implies and includes as per the current usage of the term.
Characteristics Of Development Administration
The most important characteristics of development administration are noted below :
1. Goal-orientation :
Development is a goal-oriented administration. It is a process of action motivated by and oriented to the achievement of certain pre-determined goals. It is concerned with the mobilization and proper utilization of the existing and new resources and improving ‘administrative capabilities to achieve the goals of dynamic developmental policies.
2. Change-orientation :
The central concern of development administration is to bring about desirable and progressive total socio-economic transformation. Such changes occur in the substance of a field of activity as well as in the values and attitudes of the people and bureaucracy.
It aims at achieving the physical targets of developmental policies and specific programmatic results. The evaluation of its performance is done on the basis of sectoral achievements.
It has concern for completion of developmental programmes and projects i.e., within the limits of a time frame. Client-Orientation Development administration offers services in the context of beneficiaries. Usually, developmental projects are tailor-made for specific target groups such as tribals, women, children, etc.
5. Client orientation
provides an important criterion for evaluating its performance.
6. Commitment :
The administrators are expected to be personally and emotionally involved in the work of the projects entrusted to them. They should be highly motivated to complete the projects within the time limits. The expected directional change depends much on this.
Development administration necessitates the introduction of administrative and other innovations to overcome dogmatic values and conservative methods, which obstruct progress and development. People’s participation: Since the aim of development administration is capacity building at the grassroots level people must directly involve in local development programmes. No development programme can be successful without the involvement and participation of its beneficiaries. Meaningful citizens participation calls for the creation of institutional opportunities such as Panchayati Rai. Such decentralized administrative institutions allow citizen’s active participation in the development effort. This makes developmental planning realistic to suit local needs. Thus development administration aims at the bottom-up approach.
Scope Of Development Administration
The scope of development administration covers both i) the administration OI developing i.e., the activities initiated by the government to achieve social reconstruction and economic development, and ii) development of administrative capabilities. Tarlok Singh has divided the “field of study and action represented by development administration” into the following areas:
- Extension and community services: These include technical, institutional and financial services provided by government agencies as well as services provided by voluntary organizations. These services make the operational services successful through people.
- Programme planning : This is to be made on the basis of an accurate analysis of available resources supplies and inputs.
- Project management: Various projects in the fields of irrigation, power, production of goods are to be prepared and implemented to achieve the developmental goals within a specific time frame. It is said that project implementation has been badly neglected in Indian planning.
- Area development: This means the development of a specific area like tribal area, hilly areas or any backward area. The problems of any particular area are dealt with by local agencies such as Panchayati Raj institutions and municipal committees. In doing this they act on their own within the framework provided by the government. The government gives them grants-in-aid to strengthen their financial position.
- Urban development: There is much need to secure the effective working of municipal institutions in urban areas in relation to civic life and development. There is a need to involve urban communities in the solution of their own problems or in the efficient administration of social services Larger resources must also be allocated for intensive and systematic municipal personnel, +
- Personnel development and administration: This includes the development of bureaucratic capabilities, i.e., the development of skills, character and motivation of personnel engaged in developmental activities. This requires systematic training and the effective use of trained personnel.
The scope of development administration today extends to implementing the central and state plans in various sectoral areas of health, sanitation, cottage industries, employment generation. agriculture development, women and childcare activities. Thus the scope of development administration is very wide as it covers many areas and activities.
Here are some notes for Functions Of Development Administration And Problems.