CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4

These Sample Papers are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4

Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum Marks : 80

General Instructions

  • The question paper has 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  • Marks are indicated against each question.
  • Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are Very Short Answer Type Questions. Each questions carries one mark.
  • Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
  • Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Question number 26 is a map question. It has two parts 26(A) and 26(B). 26(A) of 2 marks from History and 26(B) of 3 marks from Geography. After completion attach the map inside your answer book.
  • There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided in some questions. You have to attempt only one of the alternatives in all such-questions.

Question. 1.
Who was Johann Gottfried Herder ?
Which chemical weapons were used by the USA on Vietnam ?

Question. 2.
Who wrote The Bitter Cry of Outcast London ?
The novel, ‘Pride and Prejudice’ was written by whom ?

Question. 3.
How Gross Cropped Area is different from Net Sown Area ?

Question. 4.
How many languages are included in the 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution ?

Question. 5.
Why large number of people are forced to enter in unorganised sector for jobs ?

Question. 6.
A large MNC produces its industrial equipments in United States, manufactures its component in China. The company’s call centre is based in India. With reference to the above stated examples, write two ways in which MNCs set-up and control their production in other countries.

Question. 7.
Simran a student of Hari Nagar, joined a two year course in local coaching centre in New Delhi. At the time of joining the course she paid the fees of 60,000 for the entire course of two years. However after few months she decided to opt out of the course as she found that the quality of teaching was not upto the mark. Based on the above case write any two consumer’s rights of Simran.

Question. 8.
“The Ho Chi Minh Trail became advantageous to Vietnamese in the war against the US”. Support the statement with arguments.
Explain the political situation of Italy before its unification.

Question. 9.
Who was Louis-Sebastien Mercier ? What was his opinion on the printing press ?
Analyse any three impacts of print culture on religious reform movement of the 19th century.

Question. 10.
“Minerals are indispensable part of our lives.” Support the statement with examples.

Question. 11.
Amit owns a farm in Tamil Nadu, he wishes to cultivate either rice or jute. Which crop he shall cultivate out of the two keeping in mind the climatic conditions required for their growth ? Explain.

Question. 12.
Describe the three fold distribution of legislative powers between the Union government and State government.

Question. 13.
State any three important features of ‘Civil Rights Movement’ of the USA during 1954¬1968.

Question. 14.
“Democratic government is a legitimate government”. Explain.

Question. 15.
A vessel dumped 1000 tonnes of liquid toxic waste into open-air dumps in a city. The fumes from the highly toxic waste caused nausea, skin rashes,= fainting, diarrhoea, etc. After a month seven persons were dead, twenty admitted in hospital and twenty six were treated for symptoms of poisoning. What should be the developmental goals of this country ? Write any three.

Question. 16.
Subhash is a government employee and belongs to a rich household, whereas Raju is a construction worker and comes from a poor rural household. Both are in need and wish to take loan. Create a list of arguments explaining who between the two would successfully be able to arrange money from a formal source ? Why ?

Question. 17.
Explain the functions of World Trade Organisation (WTO) in international trade.

Question. 18.
Suppose you have to buy a packed bottle for drinking water in your journey. Which logo would you like to see to be sure about its quality ? Create a diagram and write its benefits.

Question. 19.
How did the development of the cities influence the ecology and environment in late 19th century ? Explain your answer by giving the examples of Calcutta.
How did handloom cloth production expand steadily in the 20th century ? Explain.
Why did some industrialists in nineteenth century Europe prefer manual labour over machines ?

Question. 20.
Analyse the role of merchants and the industrialists in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Explain the major factors which promoted the sense of nationalism in the Indians ?

Question. 21.
Why has the ‘Chotanagpur plateau region’ has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries ? Analye the reasons.

Question. 22.
“Dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a pre-requisite for national and international trade.” Support this statement with four arguments.
Describe some of the major improvements made by Indian railways in its functioning since Independence.

Question. 23.
What is meant by caste hierarchy ? Explain the role of caste in Indian politics.

Question. 24.
What steps are be taken to reform the political parties in India ? Suggest any four steps.
Explain the role of regional political parties in Indian politics.

Question. 25.
Rajesh is a teacher in a private school and has been getting regular salary. While Vikas is a postman in Delhi’s head post office. Name the sectors in which both of them are working and also how the sector in which Rajesh is working is different from the economic sector in which Vikas is working.
Laxmi is a domestic worker and is working in your neighbourhood. Identify the sector in which she is working. Do you think that she needs protection in terms of wages, safety and health. Explain.

Question. 26.
(A) Two features (a) and (b) are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4 1
(a) The location of Indian National Congress session of 1919.
(b) A place where large section of women of Gujarati community was influenced by Gandhiji’s idealism and participated in National Movement.
(B) Locate and label the following with appropriate symbols.
(i) A major port on the South¬East coast of India.
(ii) The state with the highest bauxite production in India.
(iii) A place famous for silk industry in South-India.


Answer. 1.
Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher who believed that true German culture can be discovered among the common people through their practice of folks tradition.
The USA used Napalm, Agent Orange and Phosphorous Bombs to destroy villages and Jungles of Vietnam.

Answer. 2.
Andrew Mearns wrote the book ‘The Bitter Cry of Outcast London’ in the 1880s. It offers an expose of the housing conditions in one section of South London in 1883 and concludes with a call for social reform.
Jane Austen wrote the famous novel Pride and Prejudice. It is a romantic novel, first published in 1813.

Answer. 3.
Net Sown Area is the proportion of the total areas of the country which is used for growing crops.

Gross Cropped Area is divided by net sown area. It includes the part of net sown area which is used for two or three crops in a year.

Answer. 4.
The 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution contains a list of 22 scheduled languages. The government of India is under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages, so that they grow rapidly and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge.” These languages are : Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.

Answer. 5.
Organised sector offers job that are most sought after. This sector provides employment opportunities to well educated and highly skilled people. As large number of people are found to be illiterate and unskilled they are forced to work in unorganised sector. Moreover, employment opportunities in organised sector are expanding very slowly.

Answer. 6.
The various ways in which MNCs set up or control their production in other countries are:

  1. Buy up a local production company.
  2. Place orders for production with small producers, i.e., contract manufacturing.
  3. Setting up a partnership (joint venture) with a local company.
  4. Setting up their wholly owned subsidiary in other country.
  5. By licencing or franchising their brands to a local company.

Answer. 7.
In the above case Simran as a consumer has the following consumer rights :

  1. Right to be heard : According to this right, consumer has the right to file a complaint and to be heard in case of dissatisfaction with a good or a service.
  2. Right to seek redressal : According to this right, a consumer has the right to get relief in case the product or service falls short of his expectations.

Answer. 8.
The Ho Chi Minh Trail became advantageous .to Vietnamese in the war against the US in the following ways :

  1. The story of Ho Chi Minh Trail asserted the nature of the war that the Vietnamese fought against the US. It told us how the Vietnamese used their limited resources to get advantage against the US.
  2. The trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads. This was used to transport men and materials from North Vietnam to South Vietnam.
  3. The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. Most of the supplies were carried by the porters on their backs.

The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt the supplies, but efforts to destroy this important supply line by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly.
Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. This is shown through the following points:

  1. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as multinational Habsburg empire.
  2. During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian Princely House.
  3. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon Kings of Spain. Even the Italian language had many regional and local variations.

Answer. 9.
Louis-Sebastien was a French dramatist and novelist who lived in 18th century. He was a moderate who participated in the French revolution.
The following points state his opinion on the printing press :

  1. He believed that the printing press was the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion.
  2. Print created a new culture of dialogous and debate.
  3. Print popularised the ideas of enlightened thinkers.
  4. Print criticised the morality of the royalty and raised questions about the existing social order.

Thus, printing press played a major role in shaping the Indian religious reform movement of the 19th century. The impacts of print culture on the

Indian society and religion were as follows :

  1. Debate over Social Issues : Print initiated an intense controversy between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over the matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry. In Bengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated, circulating a variety of arguments. To reach a wider audience, the ideas were printed in the everyday, spoken language of ordinary people.
  2. Ideas of Reforms : Print carried the ideas of social reformers to the common people. For example ‘Sambad Kaumudi’ carried the ideas and philosophy of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  3. Reforms in Hindus : Among Hindus, print encouraged the reading of religious texts especially. Thus, it can be said that from the early 19th century, there were intense debates about religious issues. Different groups in colonial society offered a new interpretation of the beliefs of different religions.
  4. Reforms in Muslims : In north India Ulama were deeply anxious about the collapse of Muslim dynaties. They fear colonial ruler would encourage conversion and change in muslim personal law. To counter this they published the Persian and Urdu translation of holy scriptures in newspaper.’ The Deoband seminary was founded in 1867 which issued fatwas telling Muslim readers how to condcut them self and explaining the meaning of Islamic doctrines.

Answer. 10.
Minerals are indispensable part of our lives in the following ways :

  1. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made of minerals.
  2. Car, buses, trains, aeroplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth.
  3. The railway lines and the termac (paving) of the roads, our implements and machinery too are made from minerals even the food we get contains minerals. Toothpaste that cleans our teeth uses abrasive minerals like silica, limestone, aluminium oxide and various other minerals used for cleaning purpose.

Answer. 11.
Keeping in mind the climatic and geographical conditions of Tamil Nadu, it is suggested that he should cultivate rice in his field because of the following reasons :

  1. Rice is grown in plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal and deltaic regions.
  2. It needs high temperature of about 25°C with high humidity and rainfall upto 100 cm.

Because of the above stated reasons it is possible to grow rice in the regions of Tamil Nadu whereas Jute grows in the well drained fertile soils in the flood plains and requires high temperature at the time of its growth. The regions of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya are suitable for the cultivation of jute.

Answer. 12.
The constitution has provided three foid distribution of power between central and state government. It consists of three lists containg different subjects of legislation.

  1. Union list: It includes subjects of national importance, e.g., defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communication and currency. The Central government alone can make decisions on these matters. The aim of including these matters in Union list is to ensure uniformity in the policy of these areas throughout the country.
  2. State list: It contains subjects of State and local importance such as police, trade, commerce, agriculture and irrigation. State government alone has the authority to maker laws relating to the subject mentioned in the state list.
  3. Concurrent list: It includes those subjects which are of common interest to both the Central as well as State governments. It includes subjects like marriage, divorce, criminal law, civil procedure newspapers, books and printing press etc. Both the union as well as the state government can make laws on the subject mentioned in this list if ever their laws conflict with each other, the law made by the union government will previal.

Answer. 13.
The Civil Rights Movement was the struggle of African-Americans in the 1950’s and 1960’s to achieve civil rights equal to those of whites, including equal opportunities in employment, housing and education, as well as the right to vote, the right to equal access to public facilities, and the right to be free from racial discrimination.

The three important features of ‘Civil Rights Movement’ of USA during 1954-1968 are :

  1. The African-American ‘Civil Rights Movement’ encompasses social movements in the United States during 1954-1968, which aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against African-Americans. This movement was raised to restore the African-Americans rights of citizenship guaranteed by the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments.
  2. This movement was led by Martin Luther King Jr., practiced non-violent methods of civil disobedience against racially discriminatory laws and practices.
  3. The movement was characterised by major campaigns of civil resistance. Acts of non-violent protest and civil disobedience produced a crisis between activists and government authorities.

Answer. 14.
Legitimate government is a government under which law and action of the government are revealed to the people and government functions in a transparent manner.
Following are the features of democratic government which make it a legitimate government.

  1. The laws are applicable to all the citizens whether rich or poor.
  2. In a democracy there is a political equality i.e., every vote counts equally.
  3. People have the right to challenge the government policies and actions. If the people are not satisfied with the working of the government, they have the right to change it.

Answer. 15.
With reference to the above stated case, since the dumping from the vessel has polluted the environment with its highly toxic fumes and is causing

various health issues, the concerned country has basically three important development goals :

  1. Quality of life and environmental sustainability.
  2. Social development which includes education, health and public services.
  3. Economic development or rise in income of the people with desirable living standard.

Answer. 16.
Subhash will be able to get loan from a formal source :

Arguments as to why he is able to get loan from a formal source are :

  1. Banks are present every where in the cities or urban area. It is always better to take loan from formal sources to avoid exploitation.
  2. Subhash is a education person and he is a government employee so he has all the documents required for the loan such as PAN card, IT Return, Pay slip etc.
  3. He is from a rich household so he has the asset which he can keep with the bank as a collateral.

Answer. 17.
The functions and importance of WTO international in trade are :

  1. WTO deals with regulation of trade between participating countries. It is also a venture of economic research and analysis.
  2. WTO provides a forum for the trade negotiations between its member countries.
  3. It is an organisation that intends to supervise and liberalise international trade. It looks after the implementation, administration and operations of the trade agreements between the countries.

Answer. 18.
I would like to see the logo of ISI (Indian Standard Institution).

The benefits of ISI mark are :

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4 2

  1. If you are not satisfied with the quality of product with ISI mark, then the company will give you new product in return of it.
  2. An action can be taken against the manufacturer of the product with ISI mark in case of its bad quality.

Answer. 19.
Cities developed every where at the cost of ecology and environment. Natural features were transformed for the establishment of factories, housing and other institutions. The following examples justify this fact in the case of Calcutta :

  1. In Calcutta, coal was used in industries and steam engines. The high content of ash in Indian coal has become a great problem causing serious health hazards to people. They were forced to inhale the smog filled air.
  2. As the city was built on marshy land, the resulting fog in winter combined with smoke generated and form thick black smog. It created a high level of pollution.
  3. The inhabitants of Calcutta used coal, wood and dung as fuel in their daily life. It produced dense smoke, which made the air ‘poisonous and caused many diseases like respiratory and skin diseases.
  4. Calcutta was the centre of manufacturing and its industries were mainly developed at the bank of river Hoogly. The waste products from these industries polluted water and air.
  5. Due to industrialization and urbanization, noise pollution was very common in Calcutta. All these factors were very harmful to environment and ecology. In 1863, Calcutta became the first Indian city to get ‘Smoke Nuisance Legislation’.

The low cost machine made thread wiped out the spinning industry in the 19th century, the Indian weavers survived and expanded steadily in the 20th century.

It was due to the following reasons :

  1. Indian weavers adopted new technology which helped them to increase production without raising costs.
  2. Handicraft producers adopted a new technology, which helped in improving the production without excessively pushing up the costs.
  3. Weavers began to use fly shuttle which increased productivity per worker, speed up production and reduced labour demand. By 1941, over 35 percent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles : In regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin and Bengal were the proportion was 70 to 80 percent.
  4. Among the weavers, some produced coarse cloth while others wove finer varieties. The finer varieties were bought by the rich people and the sale of Banarasi and Baluchari saris was not affected by famines or droughts.
  5. Mills could not imitate specialised weaves producing saris with borders, famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, etc.

Some industrialists were reluctant to introduce new machines and preferred manual labour over machines because of the following reasons :

  1. In Victorian Britain labour was available in large numbers. The industrialists had no problem of labour shortage or high wage cost.
  2. Machines of then broke down and repair was costly.
  3. In seasonal industries, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers only for the season, when it was needed.
  4. The upper class people prefer articles made by hand only as it was a symbol of status.

Answer. 20.
Indian merchants and industrialists made huge profits from International markets. However, the colonial policies like free import duties were obstacle in their interests. Thus, they formed the federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries and ‘Commercial Congress ‘ in 1920.

The following points analyse the role of merchants and the industrialists in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

  1. The industrialists and the merchants supported the Civil Disobedience Movement initially to protect their own business interests. They become powerful in the society and wanted to expand their business. So, they started opposing colonial policies that restricted their business.
  2. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
  3. The industrialists criticised colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement at its first stage.
  4. They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
  5. Most industrialists thought ‘Swaraj’ flourished at the a time when colonial restriction did not exist on business world.

The spread of nationalism took place due to following factors :

  1. United struggle : The British rulers ill treated the Indians and insulted them. This awful behaviour gave rise to the national movement. Different religious groups and communities unitedly struggled against the British rule. The administrative and economic unification of the country acted as unifying force.
  2. Cultural processes Revival of Indian folklore : Unity spread through various cultural process like history, folklore, songs and symbols that also helped in the spread of nationalism. Reviving the folklore through folk songs, legends helped in promoting traditional culture and restored a sense of pride in the past history and culture.
  3. Common identity : The painting of ‘Bharat Mata’ was commonly identified as motherland and affected the people equally.
  4. Role of press and means of communication : The press played an important role in spreading consciousness and nationalist sentiments among Indians. Newspapers like the Hindu, Amirt Bazar Patrika, the Tribune, etc., aroused the national consciousness among the Indian masses. Also the development of means of communication, Post office, Radio, etc., helped in a spread of ideas of nationalism in India and a sense of unity among Indians.
  5. Role of the leaders : Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru aroused the feelings of nationalism through their motivational speeches and political activities. Thus, it can be concluded that nationalism spread, when people began to believe that they were all a part of the same nation.

Answer. 21.
The Chotanagpur plateau has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries. It is largely because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry. The factors responsible for the concentration of iron and steel industries in and around the ‘Chotanagpur plateau region’ are as follows :

  1. Low cost of iron ore : Iron mines are located in the nearby areas. It helps to reduce the transportation cost of iron ore to the industries.
  2. High grade raw materials to proximity : Other bulky raw materials like, cooking coal and limestone are also available in the close proximity.
  3. Availability of cheap labour : From the adjoining areas of Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha cheap labour is available in abundance.
  4. Dense transport network : This region is well connected with roadways and railways that help in the swift movement of raw materials and finished goods to the industry and market areas, respectively.
  5. Port facilities : Kolkata is a well developed port that is near to this area.

Answer. 22.
We use different materials and services in our daily life. Some of them are available in our immediate surroundings, while other requirements are met by bringing things from other places. The importance of transport and communication is seen in today’s time as the world has converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport.

Arguments to support the above statement are as follows :

  1. Fast and efficient transport system is required for products to reach their destinations on time, otherwise business will suffer badly.
  2. Communication is vital for international trade where much advance planning is required for its success. For example a container has to be book in advance for export trade as most of the goods are exported through ships.
  3. Transport is required to carry raw materials to production centres and manufacturing hubs then to the markets.
  4. Modern communication facilities like the internet allow commercial transactions to take place over large distances including overseas transactions. They also keep buyers and sellers informed about their present and prospective markets.

Thus, it can be concluded that dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a pre-requisite for national and international trade.
Some major improvements in the functioning of Indian railways since independence are:

  1. Electrification of railway lines to reduce burden on fossil fuels and to increase speed. The survey of rail routes to be electrified is an ongoing process. Ministry of railways has planned to electrify 39844 kilometer of balance broad gauge routes of Indian railways by the year 2021-22.
  2. Introduction of computerised reservation system for convenience of passengers. By reserving railway ticket, you can get the seat of your choice. It is very helpful during the festival seasons because at the time of festivals, its very difficult to travel without reservation.
  3. Conversion of metre gauge lines to broad gauge to ensure higher speed and more carrying capacity.
  4. Construction of new railway lines to improve the connectivity in the country. Railway routes have been extended to areas where there was no railway route earlier.
  5. Replacing steam engines, which cause heavy pollution, by diesel and electric engines.

Answer. 23.
Caste hierarchy is the system of social stratification in our society. Broadly speaking, caste system is a process of placing people in occupational groups.

Role of caste in Indian politics :

  1. It has persuaded several aspects of Indian society for centuries. Castes are ranked in hierarchical order, which determine the behaviour of one member of society over another.
  2. Besides voting, the caste is an important factor influencing the selection of the candidates in elections, appointment of ministers, transfer and posting of public officials, etc.
  3. The policy of reservation has given further impetus to the role of caste in politics. Caste plays a very important role in elections at the time of voting. Political parties select their candidates on the basis of caste composition in the constituency.
  4. The voting in elections and mobilisation of political support from top to bottom moves on the caste system. Caste functions as a pressure group in politics. Political bargaining is also done on caste system.

Answer. 24.
In order to face the challenges in society, political parties need to be reformed.

The following steps should be taken to reform the political parties :

  1. Anti-defection law : Under the Anti-defection law, MLAs and MPs cannot change party after the election. This was done as many elected candidates were indulging in defection in order to become ministers or for cash rewards. Now, according to this law, if any MLA or MP changes his political parties, he or she will lose the seat in legislature. At the same time, this law has made any dissent even more difficult. MPs and MLAs have to accept whatever the party leaders decide.
  2. Affidavit: Now, it is mandatory for every candidate, who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him. All the political parties have to ensure that no candidate should be given ticket having criminal background for any election.
  3. Transperency in party affairs : The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.
  4. Reservation for women : It should be made mandatory for the parties to give one- third of their party tickets to women candidates, so that women can take part in the decision-making bodies of the party.
  5. Donation : All the political parties should issue proper receipt against the / donation received by them during the financial year.

Other than the national parties, most of the major parties of the country are classified by the Election Commission as ‘state parties’. The following points explain the role of r regional political parties in Indian politics.

  1. These parties need not to be regional in their ideology always. Parties like Samajwadi party, Samata party and Rashtriya Janata Dal have national level political organisation with units in several states. Some parties like Biju Janata Dal and Mizo National Front are conscious about their state identity.
  2. Since 1996, no national party is able to secure on its own a majority in Indian Lok Sabha. The national parties are compelled to form alliance with the state parties. The number and strength of the regional parties have expanded. This has contributed to the strengthening of federalism and democracy in our country.
  3. This situation is applicable not only to the Centre, but also to the State politics. If a party is unable to win the required number of seats in legislative assembly, a coalition the only option, where the regional parties plays important role in the government formation.
  4. If a regional party has a strong hold in the Centre, the region, from where the party hails will get a solid platform to work for the welfare of their region.
  5. Regional parties are playing a major role in the Indian politics and their influence : is not just limited to particular region or state, but their decisions and thought processes are important for the central government for taking and decisions. In the 16th Lok Sabha election, Bharatiya Janata Party got an absolute majority which relacted to regional level the ends of the era of coalition government at centre. This , emphatic victory has re-opened the question of alliance amongst regional parties in our country.

Answer. 25.
Since Rajesh is a teacher at a private school, this relates to the private sector of an economy. While Vikas is a postman in Delhi’s head post office, this sector relates to the public sector of an economy.

The difference between the public sector and the private sector is listed as follows :

Public Sector

  1. Public sector aims for the public welfare.
  2. The government owns most of the assets and provides all the services.
  3. The decisions regarding the pro duction and distribution are taken by the government.
  4. This sector provides basic facilities like education, health, food and security to people.
  5. Example : Indian Railways and Post Office.

Private Sector

  1. Private sector aims at profit maximisation.
  2. The ownership of assets and delivery of services is in the hands of private mdi iduaIs or companies.
  3. The decisions regarding production and distribution are taken by owners or manager of company.
  4. This sector provides consumer goods to the people.
  5. Example : TISCO and Reliance Industries limited.

Laxmi is a domestic worker and is working in an unorganised sector of an economy. The unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. There is no provision of overtime, paid leaves, holidays and leave due to the sickness. Here employment is subject to high degree of insecurity workers in the unorganised sector need protection in terms of their wages, safety and health.

The following issues of her protection in the unorganised sector can be explained as follows :

  1. Wages : Low wages, more working hours and no provision for overtime are common in unorganised sector. They must be given fair wages so that they may support their family. Hence, wages in all sectors should be according to the government rules and regulation.
  2. Safety : There are several workers working in mines or crackers factories in hazardous condition. They have no access to safety and risk their lives. Safety norms must be strictly followed in such hazardous work places. Apart from this, life insurance should be made man mandatory.
  3. Health : Workers in unorganised sector work in poor working conditions with no provision of safe drinking water, clean surroundings and medical facilities. This further deteriorates their working ability. Health insurance should be made mandatory for them. This sector includes a large number of people who are employed on their own doing small jobs such as selling products on streets or doing repair work.

Answer. 26.
The answer map is given below.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 4 3

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