KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Solutions Karnataka State Syllabus

 

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Students can download 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Karnataka State Syllabus of 1st language and 2nd language English.

Karnataka State Board Syllabus for Class 10 English Solutions (2nd Language)

 

Class 10 English Prose Karnataka State Board Solutions

Class 10 English Poem Karnataka State Board Solutions

Class 10 English Supplementary Reading Karnataka State Board Solutions

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Grammar and Composition

Karnataka State Board Syllabus for Class 10 English Solutions (1st Language)

 

Class 10 English Prose Karnataka State Board Solutions

Class 10 English Poem Karnataka State Board Solutions

Class 10 English Supplementary Reading Karnataka State Board Solutions

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Grammar and Composition

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West Bengal Board Class 10 English Solutions

West Bengal Board Class 10 English Solutions

The Merchant Of Venice Act 2 Scene 2 ICSE Class 10 English

The Merchant Of Venice -Act -2-Scene-II Icse,x,English

SCENE II. Venice. A street.

 

Enter LAUNCELOT
LAUNCELOT
Certainly my conscience will serve me to run from
this Jew my master. The fiend is at mine elbow and
tempts me saying to me ‘Gobbo, Launcelot Gobbo, good
Launcelot,’ or ‘good Gobbo,’ or good Launcelot
Gobbo, use your legs, take the start, run away. My
conscience says ‘No; take heed,’ honest Launcelot;
take heed, honest Gobbo, or, as aforesaid, ‘honest
Launcelot Gobbo; do not run; scorn running with thy
heels.’ Well, the most courageous fiend bids me
pack: ‘Via!’ says the fiend; ‘away!’ says the
fiend; ‘for the heavens, rouse up a brave mind,’
says the fiend, ‘and run.’ Well, my conscience,
hanging about the neck of my heart, says very wisely
to me ‘My honest friend Launcelot, being an honest
man’s son,’ or rather an honest woman’s son; for,
indeed, my father did something smack, something
grow to, he had a kind of taste; well, my conscience
says ‘Launcelot, budge not.’ ‘Budge,’ says the
fiend. ‘Budge not,’ says my conscience.
‘Conscience,’ say I, ‘you counsel well;’ ‘ Fiend,’
say I, ‘you counsel well:’ to be ruled by my
conscience, I should stay with the Jew my master,
who, God bless the mark, is a kind of devil; and, to
run away from the Jew, I should be ruled by the
fiend, who, saving your reverence, is the devil
himself. Certainly the Jew is the very devil
incarnal; and, in my conscience, my conscience is
but a kind of hard conscience, to offer to counsel
me to stay with the Jew. The fiend gives the more
friendly counsel: I will run, fiend; my heels are
at your command; I will run.
Enter Old GOBBO, with a basket
GOBBO
Master young man, you, I pray you, which is the way
to master Jew’s?
LAUNCELOT
[Aside] O heavens, this is my true-begotten father!
who, being more than sand-blind, high-gravel blind,
knows me not: I will try confusions with him.
GOBBO
Master young gentleman, I pray you, which is the way
to master Jew’s?
LAUNCELOT
Turn up on your right hand at the next turning, but,
at the next turning of all, on your left; marry, at
the very next turning, turn of no hand, but turn
down indirectly to the Jew’s house.
GOBBO
By God’s sonties, ’twill be a hard way to hit. Can
you tell me whether one Launcelot,
that dwells with him, dwell with him or no?
LAUNCELOT
Talk you of young Master Launcelot?
Aside
Mark me now; now will I raise the waters. Talk you
of young Master Launcelot?
GOBBO
No master, sir, but a poor man’s son: his father,
though I say it, is an honest exceeding poor man
and, God be thanked, well to live.
LAUNCELOT
Well, let his father be what a’ will, we talk of
young Master Launcelot.
GOBBO
Your worship’s friend and Launcelot, sir.
LAUNCELOT
But I pray you, ergo, old man, ergo, I beseech you,
talk you of young Master Launcelot?
GOBBO
Of Launcelot, an’t please your mastership.
LAUNCELOT
Ergo, Master Launcelot. Talk not of Master
Launcelot, father; for the young gentleman,
according to Fates and Destinies and such odd
sayings, the Sisters Three and such branches of
learning, is indeed deceased, or, as you would say
in plain terms, gone to heaven.
GOBBO
Marry, God forbid! the boy was the very staff of my
age, my very prop.
LAUNCELOT
Do I look like a cudgel or a hovel-post, a staff or
a prop? Do you know me, father?
GOBBO
Alack the day, I know you not, young gentleman:
but, I pray you, tell me, is my boy, God rest his
soul, alive or dead?
LAUNCELOT
Do you not know me, father?
GOBBO
Alack, sir, I am sand-blind; I know you not.
LAUNCELOT
Nay, indeed, if you had your eyes, you might fail of
the knowing me: it is a wise father that knows his
own child. Well, old man, I will tell you news of
your son: give me your blessing: truth will come
to light; murder cannot be hid long; a man’s son
may, but at the length truth will out.
GOBBO
Pray you, sir, stand up: I am sure you are not
Launcelot, my boy.
LAUNCELOT
Pray you, let’s have no more fooling about it, but
give me your blessing: I am Launcelot, your boy
that was, your son that is, your child that shall
be.
GOBBO
I cannot think you are my son.
LAUNCELOT
I know not what I shall think of that: but I am
Launcelot, the Jew’s man, and I am sure Margery your
wife is my mother.
GOBBO
Her name is Margery, indeed: I’ll be sworn, if thou
be Launcelot, thou art mine own flesh and blood.
Lord worshipped might he be! what a beard hast thou
got! thou hast got more hair on thy chin than
Dobbin my fill-horse has on his tail.
LAUNCELOT
It should seem, then, that Dobbin’s tail grows
backward: I am sure he had more hair of his tail
than I have of my face when I last saw him.
GOBBO
Lord, how art thou changed! How dost thou and thy
master agree? I have brought him a present. How
‘gree you now?
LAUNCELOT
Well, well: but, for mine own part, as I have set
up my rest to run away, so I will not rest till I
have run some ground. My master’s a very Jew: give
him a present! give him a halter: I am famished in
his service; you may tell every finger I have with
my ribs. Father, I am glad you are come: give me
your present to one Master Bassanio, who, indeed,
gives rare new liveries: if I serve not him, I
will run as far as God has any ground. O rare
fortune! here comes the man: to him, father; for I
am a Jew, if I serve the Jew any longer.
Enter BASSANIO, with LEONARDO and other followers
BASSANIO
You may do so; but let it be so hasted that supper
be ready at the farthest by five of the clock. See
these letters delivered; put the liveries to making,
and desire Gratiano to come anon to my lodging.
Exit a Servant
LAUNCELOT
To him, father.
GOBBO
God bless your worship!
BASSANIO
Gramercy! wouldst thou aught with me?
GOBBO
Here’s my son, sir, a poor boy,–
LAUNCELOT
Not a poor boy, sir, but the rich Jew’s man; that
would, sir, as my father shall specify–
GOBBO
He hath a great infection, sir, as one would say, to serve–
LAUNCELOT
Indeed, the short and the long is, I serve the Jew,
and have a desire, as my father shall specify–
GOBBO
His master and he, saving your worship’s reverence,
are scarce cater-cousins–
LAUNCELOT
To be brief, the very truth is that the Jew, having
done me wrong, doth cause me, as my father, being, I
hope, an old man, shall frutify unto you–
GOBBO
I have here a dish of doves that I would bestow upon
your worship, and my suit is–
LAUNCELOT
In very brief, the suit is impertinent to myself, as
your worship shall know by this honest old man; and,
though I say it, though old man, yet poor man, my father.
BASSANIO
One speak for both. What would you?
LAUNCELOT
Serve you, sir.
GOBBO
That is the very defect of the matter, sir.
BASSANIO
I know thee well; thou hast obtain’d thy suit:
Shylock thy master spoke with me this day,
And hath preferr’d thee, if it be preferment
To leave a rich Jew’s service, to become
The follower of so poor a gentleman.
LAUNCELOT
The old proverb is very well parted between my
master Shylock and you, sir: you have the grace of
God, sir, and he hath enough.
BASSANIO
Thou speak’st it well. Go, father, with thy son.
Take leave of thy old master and inquire
My lodging out. Give him a livery
More guarded than his fellows’: see it done.
LAUNCELOT
Father, in. I cannot get a service, no; I have
ne’er a tongue in my head. Well, if any man in
Italy have a fairer table which doth offer to swear
upon a book, I shall have good fortune. Go to,
here’s a simple line of life: here’s a small trifle
of wives: alas, fifteen wives is nothing! eleven
widows and nine maids is a simple coming-in for one
man: and then to ‘scape drowning thrice, and to be
in peril of my life with the edge of a feather-bed;
here are simple scapes. Well, if Fortune be a
woman, she’s a good wench for this gear. Father,
come; I’ll take my leave of the Jew in the twinkling of an eye.
Exeunt Launcelot and Old Gobbo
BASSANIO
I pray thee, good Leonardo, think on this:
These things being bought and orderly bestow’d,
Return in haste, for I do feast to-night
My best-esteem’d acquaintance: hie thee, go.
LEONARDO
My best endeavours shall be done herein.
Enter GRATIANO
GRATIANO
Where is your master?
LEONARDO
Yonder, sir, he walks.
Exit
GRATIANO
Signior Bassanio!
BASSANIO
Gratiano!
GRATIANO
I have a suit to you.
BASSANIO
You have obtain’d it.
GRATIANO
You must not deny me: I must go with you to Belmont.
BASSANIO
Why then you must. But hear thee, Gratiano;
Thou art too wild, too rude and bold of voice;
Parts that become thee happily enough
And in such eyes as ours appear not faults;
But where thou art not known, why, there they show
Something too liberal. Pray thee, take pain
To allay with some cold drops of modesty
Thy skipping spirit, lest through thy wild behavior
I be misconstrued in the place I go to,
And lose my hopes.
GRATIANO
Signior Bassanio, hear me:
If I do not put on a sober habit,
Talk with respect and swear but now and then,
Wear prayer-books in my pocket, look demurely,
Nay more, while grace is saying, hood mine eyes
Thus with my hat, and sigh and say ‘amen,’
Use all the observance of civility,
Like one well studied in a sad ostent
To please his grandam, never trust me more.
BASSANIO
Well, we shall see your bearing.
GRATIANO
Nay, but I bar to-night: you shall not gauge me
By what we do to-night.
BASSANIO
No, that were pity:
I would entreat you rather to put on
Your boldest suit of mirth, for we have friends
That purpose merriment. But fare you well:
I have some business.
GRATIANO
And I must to Lorenzo and the rest:
But we will visit you at supper-time.
Exeunt

Flower Of Love By Oscar Wilde Critical Appreciation And Line By Line Analysis

Flower Of Love By Oscar Wilde Critical Appreciation And Line By Line Analysis

About the Poet Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde was born on 16th October 1854 in Dublin, Ireland. He was born to Lady Jane Wilde and William Wilde, an Anglo- Irish couple. He was a poet and a playwright. Wilde got baptised in an Anglical church. He is known for his poems and epigrams. Wilde could fluently speak German and French. He studied in Trinity College, Dublin and then in Oxford. Wilde was an excellent student.

After university, he lectured on “English Renaissance in Art” and interior decoration as well. his most famous creation is the novel “The Picture of Dorian Gray” published in 1891 in a book form. Oscar Wilde was deeply influenced by Catholicism.

Wilde had also worked as a journalist and had a theatrical career as well. He got married to Constance Lloyd in 1884.

He was an important part of the Aesthetic movement and the Decadent movement. Some of his most significant creations are “A House of Pomegranates” (1891), “Poems” (1881), “Ravenna” (1878), “The Sphinx” (1894), “A Woman of No Importance” (1893), “Intentions” (1891), “The Ballad of Reading Gaol” (1898), “An Ideal Husband” (1895), “De Profundis” (1897), “The Importance of Being Earnest” (1895), “The Happy Prince and other stories” (1888) and a lot more.

Wilde passed away at the age of 46 in Paris on November 30, 1900.

About the Poem Flower Of Love

There is a hint of regret in the first few stanzas of the poem. From stanza 11, he has also been seen to justify his act of loving the listener, to whom the poem is addressed. The poet has tried to defend his act of loving the listener, even when it had caused him lots of losses and damages in life.

Structure of the Poem  Flower of Love

“Sweet, I blame you not, for mine the fault was, had I not been made of common clay
I had climbed the higher heights unclimbed yet, seen the fuller air, the larger day.
From the wildness of my wasted passion I had struck a better, clearer song,
Lit some lighter light of freer freedom, battled with some Hydra-headed wrong.

Had my lips been smitten into music by the kisses that but made them bleed,
You had walked with Bice and the angels on that verdant and enamelled meed.

I had trod the road which Dante treading saw the suns of seven circles shine,
Ay! perchance had seen the heavens opening, as they opened to the Florentine.

And the mighty nations would have crowned me, who am crownless now and without name,
And some orient dawn had found me kneeling on the threshold of the House of Fame.

I had sat within that marble circle where the oldest bard is as the young,
And the pipe is ever dropping honey, and the lyre’s strings are ever strung.

Keats had lifted up his hymeneal curls from out the poppy-seeded wine,
With ambrosial mouth had kissed my forehead, clasped the hand of noble love in mine.

And at springtide, when the apple-blossoms brush the burnished bosom of the dove,
Two young lovers lying in an orchard would have read the story of our love;

Would have read the legend of my passion, known the bitter secret of my heart,
Kissed as we have kissed, but never parted as we two are fated now to part.

For the crimson flower of our life is eaten by the cankerworm of truth,
And no hand can gather up the fallen withered petals of the rose of youth.

Yet I am not sorry that I loved you -ah! what else had I a boy to do?
For the hungry teeth of time devour, and the silent-footed years pursue.

Rudderless, we drift athwart a tempest, and when once the storm of youth is past,
Without lyre, without lute or chorus, Death the silent pilot comes at last.

And within the grave there is no pleasure, for the blindworm battens on the root,
And Desire shudders into ashes, and the tree of Passion bears no fruit.

Ah! what else had I to do but love you? God’s own mother was less dear to me,
And less dear the Cytheraean rising like an argent lily from the sea.

I have made my choice, have lived my poems, and, though youth is gone in wasted days,
I have found the lover’s crown of myrtle better than the poet’s crown of bays.”
The rhyming scheme of the poem is AA BB CC DD and so on.

Line by line analysis of the Poem Flower Of Love

Stanza 1:

“Sweet, I blame you not, for mine the fault was, had I not been made of common clay
I had climbed the higher heights unclimbed yet, seen the fuller air, the larger day.”

The poet expresses a feeling of regret here. He says that if he were not an ordinary man, he would have reached greater heights and would have seen fuller air and experienced better days. He also says that it is not the fault of the listener, but his own fault because he was made of “common clay”.

Stanza 2:

“From the wildness of my wasted passion I had struck a better, clearer song,
Lit some lighter light of freer freedom, battled with some Hydra-headed wrong.”

The poet here agrees that he had wasted the wildness of his passion. Had he utilised it well, he would be in a better position. But he says that in order to taste freedom, he had to fight lots of wrongs in life. He had to overcome the wrongs. Hydra is a multi-headed serpentine water monster according to Roman and Greek mythology.

Stanza 3:

“Had my lips been smitten into music by the kisses that but made them bleed,
You had walked with Bice and the angels on that verdant and enamelled meed.”

In this stanza, the speaker claims that if he used his passion well even if they made him bleed, the listener would get to walk on the beautiful and decorated share of his honour.

Stanza 4:

“I had trod the road which Dante treading saw the suns of seven circles shine,
Ay! perchance had seen the heavens opening, as they opened to the Florentine.”

The poet has walked the path that Dante had walked to see the suns of “seven circles shine”. He says that perhaps Dante also saw the gates of heaven opening for hm as they did for the Florentine.

Stanza 5:

“And the mighty nations would have crowned me, who am crownless now and without name,
And some orient dawn had found me kneeling on the threshold of the House of Fame.”

The might nations would have honoured the poet. But now, he is crownless and is not recognised even. “The House of Fame” is a poem written by Geoffrey Chaucer. The poet, in this poem, contemplates the role of the poet. Wilde says that probably beautiful dawn has just found him kneeling in front of the House of Fame for contemplation.

Stanza 6:

“I had sat within that marble circle where the oldest bard is as the young,
And the pipe is ever dropping honey, and the lyre’s strings are ever strung.”

The poet has found himself sitting within a “marble circle” with other bards (poets). The pipe there is dropping honey and the lyre’s strings are strung. In that circle, even the oldest poet is as the young one.

Stanza 7:

“Keats had lifted up his hymeneal curls from out the poppy-seeded wine,
With ambrosial mouth had kissed my forehead, clasped the hand of noble love in mine.”

The poet also talks about Keats. The poet got kissed on his forehead and he considers that to be equivalent to ambrosia. He found noble and pure love in his hands.

Stanza 8:

“And at springtide, when the apple-blossoms brush the burnished bosom of the dove,
Two young lovers lying in an orchard would have read the story of our love;”

The event when bloomed apple blossoms touch the polished bodies of the dove is evidence that it is springtide. Spring is the season of love. The poet says, that when spring would arrive, two lovers would sit in the woods and read their love story.

Stanza 9:

“Would have read the legend of my passion, known the bitter secret of my heart,
Kissed as we have kissed, but never parted as we two are fated now to part.”

The lovers talked about in the last stanza, would also read about the passion of the poet and also reveal his bitter secret. They would have kissed the way the poet and his lover had kissed. But unlike the poet and his lover, they would never part their ways. The poet has also said that it was their fate to part ways, but the two young lovers would not do it.

Stanza 10:

“For the crimson flower of our life is eaten by the cankerworm of truth,
And no hand can gather up the fallen withered petals of the rose of youth.”

The beauty of the poet and his lover’s life had been eaten up and destroyed by the “cankerworm’ of truth. Thus, they have nothing left except some withered petals signifying their dying youth.

Stanza 11:

“Yet I am not sorry that I loved you -ah! what else had I a boy to do?
For the hungry teeth of time devour, and the silent-footed years pursue.”

From, this stanza the poet starts justifying his act of loving the listener. He is not sorry for how he felt, for he had no other choice. In this course, his youth got eaten up by time and circumstances.

Stanza 12:

“Rudderless, we drift athwart a tempest, and when once the storm of youth is past,
Without lyre, without lute or chorus, Death the silent pilot comes at last.”

They drifted apart in different directions as if hit by a storm. When the youth ends totally, without any melody or song, death would become a silent pilot that would show directions.

Stanza 13:

“And within the grave there is no pleasure, for the blindworm battens on the root,
And Desire shudders into ashes, and the tree of Passion bears no fruit.”

The poet says that within the grave there is no use of desire and passion. The worms eat up everything and every emotion. There is no pleasure left once one goes into the grave.

Stanza 14:

“Ah! what else had I to do but love you? God’s own mother was less dear to me,
And less dear the Cytheraean rising like an argent lily from the sea.”

The poet again expresses little regret that he had loved the listener even more than God’s own mother. The listener was dearer to him than anybody else including the Cytheraean that rose like a silvery white lily from the waters.

Stanza 15:

“I have made my choice, have lived my poems, and, though youth is gone in wasted days,
I have found the lover’s crown of myrtle better than the poet’s crown of bays.”

Even after all the regrets, in the final stanza, the poet is clear about the choices that he has made. His youth has been wasted. But he would want to be a lover than a poet. He would want to wear the crown of myrtle than the crown of bays. Myrtle signifies peace and love, whereas bay trees signify courage and strength as per Roman and Greek mythology. The Roman Gods often wore crowns of bay leaves in order to glorify their high status.

Figures of Speech Used in the Poem Flower Of Love

1. Alliteration:

This is a figure of speech where closely associated words or corresponding words begin with the same alphabet in a sentence.
“From the wildness of my wasted passion I had struck a better, clearer song”

2. Anaphora:

It is a figure of speech, where various sentences or verses begin with the same word.
“And the mighty nations would have crowned me, who am crownless now and without a name,
And some orient dawn had found me kneeling on the threshold of the House of Fame.”

“I have made my choice, have lived my poems, and though youth is gone in wasted days,
I have found the lover’s crown of myrtle better than the poet’s crown of bays.”

Important Word Meanings:

  • Smitten: Infatuated.
  • Verdant: Bright green colour of lush grass.
  • Enamelled: Decorated.
  • Meed: A person’s share of honour.
  • Perchance: Perhaps.
  • Hymeneal: Related to marriage.
  • Ambrosial: Ambrosia is the food or drink that the Greek Gods consumed in order to be immortal.
  • Burnished: Glossy.
  • Orchard: Woods.
  • Devour: Consume.
  • Athwart: Crossways.
  • Tempest: Storm.
  • Rudderless: Directionless.
  • Lute: A type of instrument.
  • Argent: silvery white.
  • Myrtle: An evergreen shrub.

The theme of the Poem Flower Of Love

The poet has defended love in the poem. He said that he would have achieved great heights, had he not loved the listener; but by the end of the poem, he has also justified doing the same. The central theme of the poem is the emotion of love and the poet tried to explain how people often end up losing so much included successes and youth, just for the sake of love.

O, Captain! My Captain! By Walt Whitman Line By Line Analysis WBHSE Class 12 English

O, Captain! My Captain! By Walt Whitman Line By Line Analysis WBHSE Class 12 English

About the Poet Walt Whitman

Walt Whitman was born in 1819 in West Hills. He was a poet, journalist, etc. Walter is one of the most influential American poets whose works were very controversial at the time.

Walt Whitman was known as Father of Verse.

Whitesman left schooling at a very young age and started working, he worked as a teacher, journalist, etc. He also worked for printers. He edited a daily newspaper and also became an editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle.

Whitesman was also considered to be the first “poet of democracy”.

Whiteman’s few famous works are- Leaves of Grass, Manly Health and Training, Drum-Taps, Democratic Vistas, Franklin Evans, The Half-Breed, etc. His leaves of grass were first published in the history of American Literature. A large number of composers like John Adams, Ernst Bacon, Leonard Bernstein, Benjamin Britten, Rhoda Coghill, David Conte, Ronald Corp, George Crumb, Frederick Delius, Howard Hanson and many more have set his works to music. The members of white vanities celebrated ” Whiteman’s day” on his birthday.

Whitman died at the age of 72. His funeral was publicly celebrated.

About the Poem O, Captain! My Captain!

The poem “O Captain! My Captain” by Walt Whitman was written in 1865. The poem has got historical or civil war background. The complete poem is a tribute to Abraham Lincoln. The poem has gained huge popularity. The poem is emphasizing the grief and sorrow of the sailor. The poem was first published in the Sequel to Drum-Taps. The complete poem is about the death of Abraham Lincoln, the president, and how much he admires him.

In the poem, the visual imagery is the death of the captain, the celebration, and the auditory imagery is the bells, rings, peeps who were there waiting eagerly to celebrate the victory.

At the very beginning, it looked like the sailor is having a normal conversation with his captain but then as the analysis went ahead we came to know that the poem was all about grief and sorrow. The poem was a tribute to a dead captain. Overall the title of the poem is quite an appt, as the complete poem revolves around the poem and the bravery or the victory. The has they escaped the danger and managed to reach the shore.

Settings of the Poem O, Captain! My Captain!

The poem “O Captain! My captain” written by Walt Whitman was shown to be set up in a ship. In the poem, it was portrayed in a ship but for the writer or the poet it was more than anything, he was talking about America and the population of America who was waiting eagerly for the victory. It was the bravery of his dead captain or the president Abraham Lincoln for whom they could safely reach the shore.

The ship or the end of the dangerous journey symbolizes the end of the civil war. The poet refers to a free country or end of the war or a state in peace.

Structure of the poem O, Captain! My Captain!

The poem O, Captain! My Captain!

O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done,
The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won,
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring;
But O heart! heart! heart!
O the bleeding drops of red,
Where on the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;
Rise up—for you the flag is flung—for you the bugle trills,
For you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths—for you the shores a-crowding,
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;
Here Captain! dear father!
This arm beneath your head!
It is some dream that on the deck,
You’ve fallen cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still,
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will,
The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done,
From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won;
Exult O shores, and ring O bells!
But I with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

The poem doesn’t follow a particular rhyming scheme in the poem, it is a free verse. The poem “O Captain! My Captain” has got three stanzas in total each with eight verses. It is a Double Quatrine, a poem having eight lines in each stanza, both the first four and the last four lines are embedded together. The poem is an elegy.

Analysis Of The Poem O, Captain! My Captain!

O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done,
The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won,
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring;
But O heart! heart! heart!
O the bleeding drops of red,
Where on the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

In the very first stanza, the sailor informs out of joy that their ship has crossed every dangerous path and the path was almost to get completed. He says to the captain that “price we sought is won”. As the ship was near the port the sailor says about the bells and the crowd of the people exulting. And then suddenly he exclaims that his captain was fallen on the deck cold and death, all around bleeding drops of red.

O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;
Rise up- for you, the flag is flung- for you the bugle trills,
For you, bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths- for you the shores a-crowding,
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;
Here Captain! dear father!
This arm beneath your head!
It is some dream that on the deck,
You’ve fallen cold and dead.

In the second stanza, the sailor request his captain to wake up and see how the crowd was rejoicing for his victory, how the flag was flung, the bouquets, and ribbon’s wreaths. He wanted his captain to wake up and see the eager faces of the people waiting for them. And then all of a sudden his tunes change, he feels sad and prays if it was a dream that his captain was lying cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still,
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will,
The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done,
From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won;
Exult O shores, and ring O bells!
But I with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.

In the last stanza, the sailor tries to examine his master for the very last time. He checks that his master’s lips were pale and still, there was no pulse, no will. The ship successfully reached the shore. The voyage was closed and stopped, all the people were happy, enjoying, the bell was rung for completing the fearful journey. He walked out mournfully, sad and leaving his Master’s body there on the deck, cold and dead.

Literary Devices Used in the Poem O, Captain! My Captain!

  • Alliteration

Alliteration refers to the use of two or more words that begin with the same sound in close proximity to one another.

flag is flung
safe and sound

  • Personification

the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something non-human, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form.

Exult, O Shores!

He compares in such a way it seems like the shores are a human being and they are going to celebrate the victory.

  • Imagery

visually descriptive or figurative language, especially in a literary work.

“cold and dead”
“Lips are pale and still”
“bleeding drops of red”

  • Apostrophe

a punctuation mark (‘) used to indicate either possession

“O, Captain! My Captain!”

  • Consonance

the recurrence of similar-sounding consonants in close proximity, especially in prosody.

“flag is flung.”

  • Metaphor

A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another.

Captain
Voyage

  • Scansion

the action of scanning a line of verse to determine its rhythm.

The meter in the poem is iambic but there are huge inconsistencies. The poet has not followed any particular meter or tradition in the poem.

The Theme of the Poem O, Captain! My Captain!

The theme of the poem ” O Captain! My captain” is:

Loyalty

The poem by Walt Whitman is a tribute to the President or the captain of the ship Abraham Lincoln. The poet admires his captain for the victory they have won together. At the very beginning, the poem portrays the happy faces, as if the poet was talking to his captain but then suddenly the tunes change and we get to know that the captain is dead. He admires him a lot. Walter was in such a sock that it was impossible for him to get out of the shock of his master’s death. He wished if his master could wake up again to see how America’s population was waiting for them to celebrate, how they have hosted the flag, the bells, the rings, etc. He was happy but his grief was portrayed in the poem. The people were celebrating but he left the ship with all sorrow.

Victory

The poem “O Captain! My Captain” is a poem where they are celebrating the victory, the end of the civil war. They are happy that they successfully escaped the danger. The population of America was waiting eagerly as they were happy for the victory. They arranged many things to welcome the warriors like the bells, the rings, etc. They celebrate the victory for President Lincoln. But unfortunately, he was not present. Here comes sorrow that he gave up his life in the war, he was cold and dead.

Loss

In the poem “O Captain! My Captain” captain Abraham Lincoln died. He gave up his life in the civil war and so all the victory was for him. They successfully managed to get out of the danger and reach the shore but there was a loss of life. Everyone was busy celebrating but the poet was in grief and solitary. The most ironic part is that everyone was celebrating for the victory of the captain but unfortunately the captain was not present to see the triumph.

The poet Walter admires his captain Abraham Lincoln a lot and so that he breaks off and says “But O heart! heart! heart! … my Captain lies, / Fallen cold and dead.” He beautifully portrays the relation between victory and loss. He wished if his captain could wake up again to witness all the crowds and joy.

A Teenager’s Prayer By J. Morse Line By Line Analysis Class 10 English Maharashtra State Board

A Teenager’s Prayer By J. Morse Line By Line Analysis Class 10 English Maharashtra State Board

About the poet J. Morse

Horace J. Morse, born in Norwalk, Huron County, Ohio on December 30, 1838, was the thirteenth Adjutant General of the State of Connecticut. Morse parents were Charles Aldro Morse and Lauretta Cooledge Smith. When Horace J. Morse was younger he lived in Lockport, N.Y., where he received his main education, and then attended Cambridge University in England. He later moved to Hartford, Connecticut at the outbreak of the Civil War.

At the age of 22, Morse was appointed Quartermaster General on the staff of Governor Buckingham. Two years later Morse was appointed Connecticut Adjutant General serving until the close of the war.

In 1862 Morse married Frances E. Trask and they had one boy and one girl named Charles Lewis Morse and Alice L. Morse. In 1868 he became a partner in A.M. Kidder & Co. Amor M. Kidder, who founded the firm in 1865 and was succeeded as senior partner by Morse. Horace J. Morse was an organizer and former vice president of the People’s Trust Company of Brooklyn.

Horace J. Morse died at the age of 92 on March 18, 1930, in Brooklyn, N.Y. after being ill for two months.

About the poem A Teenager’s Prayer

“In the poem “A teenager’s prayer”, the poet J Morse is taking the place of a teenager to talk about their inner feeling. The central idea of the poem is a teenager’s desire to be able to make the right decisions that lead to success in life. The teenager requests the Lord to help guide him in his journey in life and stay with him as he has to take important decisions on a daily basis.

Here the poet speaks as if he is a teenager and wants to tell the condition of the mind of a teenager at a very delicate time of his life. The poet begins by saying that each new day will bring new beginnings; and he/she will have to make decisions as to which road he/she must walk on.

Structure of the poem A Teenager’s Prayer

The poem A Teenager’s Prayer

Each day brings new beginnings,
Decisions I must make.
I am the only one to choose from.
The road that I will take.
I can choose to take the road of life,
That leads to great success
Or travel down the darkened road,
That leads to great distress.
Please open up my eyes dear Lord,
That I might clearly see
Help me stand for what is right,
Bring out the best in me.
Help Lord just say “no”
When Temptation comes my way,
That I might keep my body clean
And fit for life each day.
When my teenage years are over,
I know that I will see
That life is lived it’s very best
With you walking next to me.

The poem uses simple words along with the abcb rhyme scheme. There are five stanzas each consists of four lines. There is the use of metaphors to express the poet’s thoughts. This poem conveys a teenager’s inner feelings beautifully.

Line By Line Analysis Of The Poem A Teenager’s Prayer

Each day brings new beginnings,
Decisions I must make.
I am the only one to choose from.
The road that I will take.

The poet says that each day is a new beginning and they have to firmly choose new decisions, irrespective of whether they are easy or difficult. They have to walk through the correct road.

I can choose to take the road of life,
That leads to great success
Or travel down the darkened road,
That leads to great distress.

The poet talks about two paths one path can lead them to great success while the other path leads to distress. He says about the teenager’s dilemma to choose one among them.

Please open up my eyes dear Lord,
That I might clearly see
Help me stand for what is right,
Bring out the best in me.

The third stanza is all about a teenager’s prayer to god. The teenager says to god to make him/her see things clearly. He/she says to make them wise enough to choose the correct path and also to give the strength to bring out the best in him/her.

Help Lord just say “no”
When Temptation comes my way,
That I might keep my body clean
And fit for life each day.

He/she prays to god to make them stay away from the temptations or stop them from the temptations which can make him/her weak. He/she prays to god to make him/her strong, both physically and mentally.

When my teenage years are over,
I know that I will see
That life is lived it’s very best
With you walking next to me.

In the last stanza, the teenager who is looking into the future and making prayer to God says that he/she will be happy due to the success they achieve in their life. It would be only possible for the God who showed them the right path by listening to all their prayers and request.

Literary Device In A Teenager’s Prayer  Poem

  • Alliteration:-the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.

Travel down the darkened road

  • Metaphor:– a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.

I can choose to take the road of life

  • Inversion:-inversion is a reversal of normal word order, especially the placement of a verb ahead of the subject.

Decisions, I must make

  • Apostrophe:–punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.

Please open up my eyes, dear Lord

The theme of the Poem A Teenager’s Prayer

The poem “A Teenager’s Prayer” focuses on the teenager’s desire to be able to make the right decisions that lead to success in life. The teenager prays to God to help guide him/her in the journey in life and stay with him as he has to take important decisions in life.

The teenager wants to choose the right path that helps him keep his mind clean and avoid all temptations or roads that lead to distress. It is a beautiful poem that shows how a teenager wants to do the right thing and needs the Lord’s help to ensure he does not stray from his morals.

A Psalm Of Life By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Line By Line Analysis Class 10 English UP Board

A Psalm Of Life By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Line By Line Analysis Class 10 English UP Board

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator. Longfellow was born on February 27, 1807, to Stephen Longfellow and Zilpah Longfellow in Portland, Maine, then a district of Massachusetts. He grew up in what is now known as the Wadsworth–Longfellow House. He studied at Bowdoin College and became a professor at Bowdoin and later at Harvard College after spending time in Europe.

He pursued his literary goals by submitting poetry and prose to various newspapers and magazines, partly due to encouragement from Professor Thomas Cogswell Upham.[18] He published nearly 40 minor poems between January 1824 and his graduation in 1825.[19] About 24 of them were published in the short-lived Boston periodical The United States Literary Gazette.

His works include “Paul Revere’s Ride”, The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline. He was also the first American to translate Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy and was one of the Fireside Poets from New England. His first major poetry collections were Voices of the Night (1839) and Ballads and Other Poems (1841).

Much of Longfellow’s work is categorized as lyric poetry, but he experimented with many forms, including hexameter and free verse. Longfellow often used didacticism in his poetry, though he focused on it less in his later years. Much of his poetry imparts cultural and moral values, particularly focused on life being more than material pursuits. Longfellow rarely wrote on current subjects and seemed detached from contemporary American concerns. He was also important as a translator; his translation of Dante became a required possession for those who wanted to be a part of high culture.

About the Poem A Psalm Of Life

The poem says that the aim of our life should be to work for our future betterment. He says that life is a reality and should be taken quite seriously. Life is full of struggle and difficulties and is like a battlefield. We should face it bravely. To achieve our goals in life we should be patient and hard working.

Life is not an empty dream. It is a serious reality. Death is not the ultimate object for the soul is immortal. Sorrow or joy is not its preordained way or aim. Our main duty in life is to work hard and progress day by day. In this short and temporary camp of life, we should face the circumstances of life as a hero, and not be driven this way or that way by them like helpless cattle. We should give up idleness and start working hard to achieve success after success, we should learn to labor and wait for the result.

Structure of the Poem A Psalm Of Life

The poem

Life is real! Life is honest!
And the grave is not its goal.
” Dust thou art, to dust returnest, ”
Is not spoken of the soul.
Not enjoyment and not sorrow,
Is our destined end or way ;
But to act that each tomorrow
Finds us farther than today,
In the world,s broad field of battle,
In the bivouac of life.
Be not like dumb, driven cattle;
Be a hero in the strife!
Let us, then, be up and doing,
With a heart for any fate ;
Still achieving, still pursuing,
Learn to labor and to wait.

The poem consists of 4 stanzas each with 4 lines. The rhyme scheme followed by the entire poem is ABAB. End Rhyme: End rhyme is used to make the stanza melodious. The rhyming words are “honest”, “returnest”, “goal” and “soul.”

Line By Line Analysis Of The Poem A Psalm Of Life

line-1-4

Life is real! Life is honest!
And the grave is not its goal.
” Dust thous art, to dust returnest, ”
Is not spoken of the soul.

Life or living has got its own motive. We aren’t born to die, death is not the ultimate solution to life. We should know its reality and take life seriously.

The poet says that the body and soul are not the same, both are different. The body is made of dust and mixes in the dust after the death but the soul never dies. The soul is immortal.

line-5-8

Not enjoyment and not sorrow,
Is our destined end or way ;
But to act that each tomorrow
Finds us farther than today,

The poet says that the purpose of life is to work hard and make our future brighter. He says or advises not to be dependent on the fate and work hard.

The poet says not to be so involved in enjoying the life but to focus on the betterment of tomorrow. To think to make our future brighter than today.

line-9-12

In the world,s broad field of battle,
In the bivouac of life.
Be not like dumb, driven cattle;
Be a hero in the strife!

In this stanza, the poet compares life to the battlefield. He says to be a brave one and face all the struggles of life.

He says not to act like a dumb, driven cattle but to act like a hero and fight against all the obstacles.

line-13-16

Let us, then, be up and doing,
With a heart for any fate ;
Still achieving, still pursuing,
Learn to labor and to wait.

The poet says that we should be busy working hard with courage and bravery and not think about the result beforehand. According to the poet, we should learn to labor and then wait for the result. If we work hard we will automatically get the success. Life is to do One’s Karma and take all eventualities in life as a result.

Literary Device In A Psalm Of Life Poem

  • Personification:-the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something non-human, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form.

-“Let the dead Past bury its dead!”

  • Alliteration:-the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.

broad field of battle,
dumb, driven cattle!”

  • Metaphor:– a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.

Life is spoken of as a battle that we must fight to survive.

  • Allusions:- an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly

“Dust thou art, to dust returnest”

  • Climax:- the most intense, exciting, or important point of something; the culmination.

Still …..Learn to labor and to wait.

Theme of the Poem A Psalm Of Life

The main theme of the poem, as we can see, is to represent an optimistic view of life. According to the poet, this life is precious. We should not waste it. Rather, we should use this life to do something great, so that people remember us forever. We are here to win the battle of life, not to lose it. The poet is being optimistic. He encourages people to live their lives to the fullest, using the short time we have here on Earth as a gift. The poem is a message to future generations to find work and action that gives them purpose and passion. According to the poet, we should learn to labor and then wait for the result. If we work hard we will automatically get the success. Life is to do One’s Karma and take all eventualities in life as a result.

The Fountain By James Russell Lowell Line By Line Analysis Class 10 English UP Board

The Fountain By James Russell Lowell Line By Line Analysis Class 10 English UP Board

James Russell Lowell was an American Romantic poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets that rivaled the popularity of British poets. Lowell graduated from Harvard College in 1838, despite his reputation as a troublemaker, and went on to earn a law degree from Harvard Law School. He published his first collection of poetry in 1841 and married Maria White in 1844.

James Russell Lowell was born on February 22, 1819. He was a member of the eighth generation of the Lowell family, the descendants of Percival Lowell. Lowell’s earliest poems were published without remuneration in the Southern Literary Messenger in 1840. A Fable for Critics was one of Lowell’s most popular works, published anonymously in 1848. In 1848, Lowell also published The Biglow Papers, later named by the Grolier Club as the most influential book of 1848.

James Russell Lowell’s writing was influenced by Swedenborgianism, a Spiritualism-infused form of Christianity founded by Emanuel Swedenborg, causing Frances Longfellow to mention that “he has been long in the habit of seeing spirits”. A scholar of linguistics, Lowell was one of the founders of the American Dialect Society. Lowell’s selected works are: A Year’s Life (1841), Miscellaneous Poems (1843), The Biglow Papers (1848), A Fable for Critics (1848), Conversations on the Old Poets (1844), Fireside Travels (1864).

Lowell was an abolitionist, but his opinions wavered concerning African-Americans. He advocated suffrage for blacks, yet he noted that their ability to vote could be troublesome. Freed slaves, he wrote, were “dirty, lazy & lying”. Lowell was also involved in other reform movements.

About the Poem

The poet describes the motion of the fountain during sunlight and moonshine that inspires him to achieve his highest goals in life. He wishes to be happy and cheerful in all situations of life just like the fountain. According to the poet, if a man will be a value-seeker, he must be one by choice. To be a value-seeker, a man must think for himself. Thinking about one’s own values is selfish, but it is good nevertheless.

Structure of the Poem

The Poem

Into the sunshine,
Full of the light,
Leaping and flashing
From morn till night!
Into the moonlight,
Whiter than snow,
Waving so flower-like
When the winds blow!
Into the starlight,
Rushing in spray,
Happy at midnight,
Happy by day!
Ever in motion,
Blithesome and cheery,
Still climbing heavenward,
Never aweary;–
Glad of all weathers,
Still seeming best,
Upward or downward,
Motion thy rest;–
Full of a nature
Nothing can tame,
Changed every moment,
Ever the same;–
Ceaseless aspiring,
Ceaseless content,
Darkness or sunshine
Thy element;–
A Glorious fountain!
Let my heart be
Fresh, changeful, constant,
Upward, like thee!

“The Fountain” is a poem with eight stanzas divided into four lines. It has got a definite rhyming scheme: abcb bdXd bebe aXXX XbXb Xfbf cbab Xaebe.

There are many exclamation marks in the poem which shows that the speaker is excited. He or she has strong feelings on the subject that is described in the poem “The Fountain”

Line By Line Analysis Of The Fountain By James Russell Lowell

Stanza 1:

Into the sunshine,
Full of the light,
Leaping and flashing
From morn till night!

In the very first stanza, the poet describes how the fountain looks like or the motion in the sunlight. He says in the sunlight, the fountain of the water keeps jumping up out the spring from morning to the end of the day. It seems to shine even more, brighter in the light.

Stanza 2:

Into the moonlight,
Whiter than snow,
Waving so flower-like
When the winds blow!

In the second stanza, the poet describes how the fountain looks like in the moonlight or at night. He compares the water with the snow and flowers, he says that the water looks whiter than the snow at night. He even says that the water which comes out from the spring or fountain looks like a white flower.

Stanza 3:

Into the starlight,
Rushing in spray,
Happy at midnight,
Happy by day!

In the third stanza, the poet describes how the fountain looks like in the starlight. He says that the fountain or the waters looks as if it is sprayed. No matter day or night the fountain stays forever. The poet too wanted to be happy like the fountain.

Stanza 4:

Ever in motion,
Blithesome and cheery,
Still climbing heavenward,
Never aweary;–

The poet says that the fountain stays in motion all the time, it never stops or never gets tired. Just because the water keeps flowing upwards, the poet says that the water climbs the steps to heaven. It says that the fountain is found to be very energetic to flow all the time and it has got the power to be happy.

Stanza 5:

Glad of all weathers,
Still seeming best,
Upward or downward,
Motion thy rest;–

No matter what the weather is the fountain stays happy forever. No matter what the direction is whether upwards or downward, it find rest and happiness in that.

Stanza 6:

Full of a nature
Nothing can tame,
Changed every moment,
Ever the same;–

The fountain is a part of nature, no one can take it in their own control or no one can stop it from flowing. It keeps flowing upward, the water flows in a perfect ratio that it always looks similar.

Stanza 7:

Ceaseless aspiring,
Ceaseless content,
Darkness or sunshine
Thy element;–

The fountain keeps flowing water upward continuously. It seems as if he is very happy and satisfied by the heights to which the water reaches. Whether it is day or night the fountain seems to be happy always. It teaches us what the atmosphere of nature is we should always stay happy and satisfied.

Stanza 8:

A Glorious fountain!
Let my heart be
Fresh, changeful, constant,
Upward, like thee!

The speaker is very excited. He has got strong feelings on the subject that is described in the poem. The fountain inspires him to achieve his highest goals in life. He wishes to be happy and cheerful in all situations of life just like the fountain.

Literary Device

  • Personification:-the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something non-human, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form.

“waving so flower-like”
“leaping and flashing”
“still climbing heavenward never aweary”

  • Alliteration:–the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.

Ceaseless content
changeful, constant

  • Metaphor:– a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.

Into the moonlight,
Whiter than snow,

Waving so flower-like

When the winds blow!

Into the starlight,
Rushing in spray,

Happy at midnight,

Happy by day!

  • Enjambment:- the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza.

Let my heart be
Fresh, changeful, constant,

  • Conversion:-

Waving so flower-like

  • Inversion:-

Upward or downward,

  • Refrain:

Into the starlight,
Theme of the poem

In the poem “The Fountain“, the theme is nature. The poem is full of images we see it when he described the fountain.

James Russell Rowell in the poem describes the fountain, and what makes the waterfall? And how does it look like?. He describes the moment of waterfall “Full of a nature nothing changed every moment, ever the same”. He also describes his emotions when he sees the fountain “Let my heart be Fresh, changeful, constant, Upward, like thee!”. He wishes to be happy and cheerful in all situations of life just like the fountain.

1. End! – My Thoughts

1. End! – My Thoughts

The very word ‘end ‘ haunts me whenever I am engrossed in deep contemplation.I have read and discussed about the ends of various matters. The scientific thought regarding different aspects eases me. But I find science to be a futile one when I try to reach the very end of the word end.

Does anything end? My fanciful thoughts hover around here and there and high above in the sky. But I find myself in a puzzled state when my fanciful mind brings me the question– the end of this sky and universe. I find myself helpless. With a spin in the head I find myself back in the realistic world. But the word with a question mark keeps me disturbing as an ant disturbs us when it circumvents into our ears. When I get in touch of the religious preaching I get light headed but still with the same question END.

Religions like Hinduism and Buddhism teach us that soul is immortal. The body perishes, not the soul. Ultimately a soul unites with the ultimate being. But does it end really? As this world is made up with amalgamation. Nothing is pure. Nothing perhaps ends merging with anything else. Then why to use the word end? A baseless word to use.

I get confused like the nonsense rhymes of Sukumar Roy. Whenever I start a voyage I feel it a resuming the voyage and not a start. At the same time I start to think the beginning of my journey. When did I start ? How long have I been travelling and when shall I end?

At this I declare that I am defeated to the word END. So I dare not end my writing I shall rather pause my writing!

Claques – My Thoughts

2. Claques – My Thoughts

One day on all fours, I came across the term claques while I was reading an article on theater and audience. To me it was the discovery of a fold of human psychology. Overwhelming me the term removed the fog of my ignorance. Did I try to jot down the qualities? (!!!) of claques; tried to classify them and tried to find affinity with the flatterers.

Previously I considered myself to be a Pundit and advised people to follow various things in life for success in true sense. In the later course I came across some influential books which shattered me to the base of my learning and taught me some unique ways which will enable me to differentiate and as well as create an atmosphere free from enemies and enmity .

But at this juncture I find myself pole asunder to what considered a thought of standard. Though funny and interesting the claques are they should be shun by us .I would rather hate those who will patronize the beliefs of claques and try to bring the characteristics into them. But unfortunately we, the societal creatures are unknowingly behaving like the claques.

Claques are the dark side of humanity .Beware friends, they are to misguide you. They are to be found with you when you prosper and come into the limelight. They will not get tired of praising you and your works. Be microscopic towards the people around you for they may be dangerous claques. You will hardly find the backbone of personality in them and they are often YES BOSS.

The best livings being I can compare the claques with are the leeches. When the leeches are on you, though they suck up your blood but they make you fell nothing painful. And when they leave, you find them in their real attire. Friends, look around you, and you are going to find numerous leeches i.e. claques.

Find them; scan them; despise them and be happy.

Limitation – My Thoughts

3. Limitation! – My Thoughts

Conscience and limitation are the two correlated ideas which have an affinity with each other. The word limitation varies depending on time, situation, society, economy, philosophy and psychology. However, we always relate the idea with a kind of rule and regulation that is set up by society, constitution, customs or culture.

A person often criticizes others for having failed to be within his or her limitation. We relate the idea a lot with moralistic sense. Performing perfect manners depending on the situation is very common .When a student converses with his or her teacher he or she performs a kind of limitation. But when he or she converses with his or her friends he or she becomes a bit different in his or her limitation. A lawyer behaves hostile with criminals in the accused box. But
he is humble to the judge with a lot of praising words. When we talk with an auto driver we never behave in a polite way. We rather think them to be knaves and be skeptical about the billings. Whereas when we talk with a pilot of an airplane we show high respect and rarely think how much do we damage in airplanes.

We do care a lot the people who hold a high position, money and be careful to limit our thoughts and works. We do act as per the situation .I must say that we do not limit the situation, situation
limits our act. When we get to see a thief caught we do unleash the animal within ourselves and exercise our power on the thief with a lot of unsocial words. We forget to limit our limitation. We dare not speak a single sentence when leaders do steal million times more what the thief had. Surprisingly we limit ourselves. We are the best judgement maker of ourselves .When we see a person of stronger than us in physique, we do try to limit our talks and behaviours. And when we see a person weaker in built, we start exposing hostile threatening attitude.

We do often forget to evaluate our physical limitations. We never go mad that 85% of our brain does not work. We never think the limitation of our sensory organs which are inferior to many minor animals. We never try to transcend our life duration. We never try to comprehend that we are limited every way by the limitless Authority.

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