Information Technology UPSC Notes

Information Technology UPSC Notes

Industrial revolution has given us production technologies which have revolutionised methods of production. It has given us better quality products at more competitive prices. In some cases, it has given products which did not exist earlier. Today, Information Technology is bringing about a similar revolution in the methods of business and management, which the industrial technology brought in the methods of production. That is why it has been called as the Second Industrial Revolution.

It all started with the development of computers in the 1950s. Early computer systems of the 50s and 60s were called Data Processing Machines. They were stand-alone machines which could tabulate transaction data into statistical reports. Paper documents containing transaction data were physically brought to the computer centre. Data was punched, verified and tabulated at the computer center and tabulated reports were physically carried away from the computer center. There was no interface between the computer system and the communication system because the computer used the digital pulses while the communication system used analogue pulses. Then came the digitization of the communication system that made it possible to integrate communication systems with computer systems. Both computer technology and communication technology have grown very rapidly, contributing to each others growth, the two have become very interdependent.

The term IT has come into common use since the mid-80s with the integration of the computer technology and the communication technology. Today, IT provides integrated solutions for development of information systems in organisations and society. Information system is the nervous system of any organisation and sine qua non for it survival.

In today’s competitive global economy, industries and nations must manage their human capital and material resources efficiently and effectively if they are to survive and prosper. The world is moving towards more democratic and open forms of governance. With rising expectations of people and greater emphasis on public accountability, governments are under increasing pressure to improve managerial performance. Information lies at the heart of any management process. Information systems in organizations are as old as organizations themselves. With the growing complexities of modern organisations, not to speak of the systems of public administration, information systems are playing greater role in providing integration in organisational and public functioning. We are moving towards an information society in which much larger proportion of people are depending for their livelihood and lifestyles on activities relating to information processing.

In the last few decades, the world has seen such phenomenal growth in IT which it had not seen in many centuries before.

The developments in IT has affected every industry and every profession. It has had profound effect on the style and quality of life of people all over the world. It has influenced the development strategy of nations as well as the balance of power amongst nations.


Information Technology has been the greatest change agent. It is changing every aspect of human life. It is breaking traditional barriers and building new interconnections in the emerging “Global Village’. It has made a significant impact on public administration which is briefly discussed here:

Flattened organizational structure:

The introduction of IT has led to flattening and downsizing of bureaucratic organisations, eliminating the need for hierarchy and a long chain of command. In other words the hierarchical organisation structure has been replaced by a more flattened one. There is now reduction in paper work. A sizable number of people deploved in workplaces has been downsized. The impact of IT is felt mainly at the middle-level management. In the traditional public administration, the middle-level management constitutes the mainstay of bureaucracy. Now, people even from remote do have fast access to knowledge available in any corner of the world.

Creation of new administrative culture:

Downsizing of the governme directorates and field offices would result in creation of new administrative culture by making peopics acco to information about public administration easy, bringing the public officials under the gaze of effective public scrutiny, by helping the people to assess the merit and attitude of public servants towards the people as their customers or consumers. Appreciati leir customers or consumers. Appreciation of the demands of the people by public will be greatly facilitated through IT. IT would be agent for transforming the nature and style of public administration into a participatory culture, taking the people as partners in public administration. Freely a information would also go a long way in reducing corruption in administration.


IT provides greater access of information ‘which could be used 101 Dec decision-making, transparency and free governance. The democratic government is not justo be elected by the people but should also have credibility and accountability in the eyes of the people.

Change in Administrative Process:

IT is also changing the administrative process, which is called ‘neutral networks’. Neutral networks are being used to supplement decision-making in a wide variety of areas. These networks can scan customer purchases and client behaviour, and can also spot potential defrauders. The neutral network systems are programmed to think like a human being and take the initiative. This technology will be of great help in analysing the track records of criminals by police forces and detecting fraud in the management of financial institutions and banks.

The introduction of IT will bring about management revolution. As in the case of Railways, Insurance Sector, Banking, Air transport, etc. file-pushing processes are being done away with. In India, with IT, much progress and efficiency is observed which in turn has improved the standard of services!

Enabling technology for performance:

Irrespective of the type and nature of process involved in public management systems, it is an indisputable fact that ‘It can be effectively used as an ‘enabling technology to enhance the performance of the administrators. With all it s related components, IT provides competitive advantage, financial gains, better delivery of services. besides ushering in authenticity, accountability, transparency and speed to the working of administrators.

As management finds itself in need of more and more timely information for decision-making information services would be increasingly important. Further, IT provides different services at one window often called single window clearance. There is no performance orientation rather than a procedure-oriented bureaucratic sophistication of information processing technology means that public managers with more new ideas, new products and new challenges than ever before.

Promoting IT Education And Training:

Now IT technologies have forced promote IT training programmes and invest in IT education. To imbibe these new technologies and to exploit them to hit, the administrators have to be trained on the use and application of these emerging technologies. Indeed the success of the administrator lies in absorption, adaptation and acquicition of IT and IT-based technologies to compete globally. absorption, adaptation, and acquisition of IT and IT-based technologies This, in return, entails that now the choice of modern administrator should be of a person having a reasonable foundation built through adequate IT education.

Application of IT is quite important in the context of challenges surfaced by globalization and good governance. The successful induction of ‘IT’ in public administration requires a change of mindset. This requires political will and support and decisive administrative leadership.

Check out public administration notes in detail.

Motivation And Theories Of Motivation – Part II

Abraham Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Of Motivation

Abraham Maslow in his Classical paper “The Theory of Human Motivation published in 1943, outlined an overall theory of motivation. He analysed the relationship between human beings and organisations from the standpoint of human needs’.

Human beings become members of organisations to fulfil their needs. These needs arise in several areas. Fulfilment of these needs motivates human beings to a higher level of performance. Non-fulfilment of needs will harm the motivation of individuals to contribute to the organisation and realise the organisational objectives.

Maslow postulated that the motivational needs of an individual are structured in a hierarchy of prepotency and probability of appearance. All these needs can be arranged in a five-level triangle as given in the figure :

  1. Self Actualisation 
  2. Esteem needs
  3. Social needs
  4. Safety needs
  5. Physiological needs

1. Physiological needs

Physiological needs are the biological needs required to preserve human life; these needs include needs for food, clothing and shelter. These needs must be met at least partly before higher-level needs emerge. They exert a tremendous influence on behaviour. They are the most powerful of motivating stimuli, for we must satisfy most of them to exist (survive). These take precedence over other needs when thwarted. As pointed out by Maslow, man lives by bread alone, when there is no bread. Physiological needs dominate when all needs are unsatisfied. Physiological needs have certain features in common:

They are relatively independent of each other. In many cases, they can be identified with a particular organ in the body (hunger stomach etc.)

Physiological needs are essentially finite. An individual demands only a particular amount of these needs. After reasonable gratification, they are no longer demanded and hence not motivational. They must be met repeatedly within relatively short time periods to remain fulfilled. Satisfaction of physiological needs is usually associated not with money itself but with what it can buy. The value of money diminishes as one goes up the hierarchy.

2. Safety needs

Once physiological needs become relatively well gratified, the safety needs begin to manifest themselves and dominate human behaviour. These include M Protection from physiological dangers (fire, accident). Economic security (fringe benefits, health, insurance programmes). The desire for an orderly, predictable environment; and The desire to know the limits of acceptable behaviour.

Maslow stressed emotional as well as physical safety. Thus, these needs are concerned with protection from hazards of life; from danger, deprivation and threat. Safety needs are primarily satisfied through economic behaviour. Organizations can influence these security needs either positively through pension schemes, insurance plans-or negatively by arousing fears of being fired or laid off. Safety needs too, are motivational only if they are unsatisfied. They have finite limits.

3. Higher-order needs

After the lower order needs have been satisfied, the social or love needs become important motivators of behaviour. Man is a gregarious being and he wants to belong, to associate, to gain acceptance from associates, to give and receive friendship and affection. Social needs tend to be stronger for some people than for other · and stronger in certain situations. Social needs have certain features in common.

They provide meaning to work life. Individuals are not treated as glorified machine tools in the production process. People congregate because of mutual feelings of being beaten by the system. Social needs are regarded as secondary because they are not essential to preserve human life. They are nebulous because they represent the needs of the mind and spirit, rather than of the physical body. 

Social needs are substantially infinite. Social needs are primarily satisfied through the symbolic behaviour of psychic and social content. 

4. The Esteem Needs

Esteem needs are two-fold in nature. Self-esteem needs include those for self-confidence, achievement, competence, self-respect, knowledge and independence and freedom. The second group of esteem needs are those that are related to one’s reputation needs for status, recognition, appreciation and the deserved respect of one’s fellows/associates. Esteem needs have certain features in common. They do not become motivators’ until lower-level needs are reasonably satisfied.

These needs are insatiable; unlike lower-order needs, these needs are rarely satisfied. “Satisfaction of esteem needs, produces feelings of self-confidence, worth, strength, capability and adequacy, of being useful and necessary in the world’. Thwarting them results in feelings of inferiority, weakness and helplessness, The satisfaction of esteem needs is not always obtained through mature or adaptive behaviour. It is sometimes generated by irresponsible actions, The modern organisation offers few opportunities for the satisfaction of these needs to people at lower levels in the hierarchy,

5. The Self-Actualization needs

These are the needs for realizing one’s own potentialities for continued self-development, for being creative in the broadest sense of that term. Self-actualization is the desire to become what one is capable of becoming.

The specific form that these needs take will vary greatly from person to person. In one person it may be expressed materially, in still another, aesthetically. Self-realization is not necessarily a creative urge. It does not mean that one must always create poems, novels, paintings and experiments. In a broad sense, it means creativeness in realizing to the fullest one’s own capabilities; whatever they may be. The way self-actualization is expressed can change over the life cycle. For example, John Borg, Rod Laver, switched over to coaching after excelling in their respective fields. These needs are continuously motivational, for example scaling mountains, winning titles in fields like tennis, cricket, hockey etc. The need for self-realization is quite distinctive and does not end in satisfaction in the usual sense.

These needs are psychological in nature and are substantially infinite. The conditions of modern life give only limited opportunity for these needs to obtain expression.

Criticism Of Need Hierarchy Theory

Although of great societal popularity, need hierarchy as a theory continues to receive little empirical support: The available research certainly generates a reluctance to accept the implications of Maslow’s theory unconditionally :

1. Theoretical difficulties

The need hierarchy theory is almost non-testable. It defies empirical testing, and it is difficult to interprét and operationalize its concepts.

2. Research methodology

Maslow’s model is based on a relatively small sample of subjects. It is a clinically derived theory and its unit of analysis is the individual. Maslow, recognizing these limitations, presented the model “with apologies to those who insist on conventional reliability, validity, sampling etc’.

3. Superfluous classification scheme

The need classification scheme is somewhat artificial and arbitrary. Needs cannot be classified into neat watertight compartments or a neat five-step hierarchy. The model is based more on wishes of what man should be than what he actually is.

4. Chain of causation in the hierarchy

There is no definite evidence that once a need has been gratified, its strength diminishes. It is also doubtful whether the gratification of one need automatically activates the next need in the hierarchy.

5. Needs-crucial determinants of behaviour

The assumption that needs are the crucial determinants of behaviour is also open to doubt. Behaviour is influenced by innumerable factors (not necessarily by needs alone). Moreover, there is ample evidence to show that people seek objects and engage in behaviour that is in no way connected to the gratification of needs.

Individual differences: Individuals differ in the relative intensify of their various needs. Some individuals are strongly influenced by love needs despite having a flourishing social life and satisfying family life; some individuals have a great and continued need for security despite continued employment with enormous fringe benefits.

Evaluation Of Need Hierarchy Theory 

Maslow’s model should be viewed at best as a general description of the average individual at a specific point in time; it must be viewed as a general theoretical statement, rather than an abstraction from field research. Even in its awkward form, the model seems to apply to underdeveloped countries. A survey of 200 factory workers in India points out that they give top priority to lower-level needs. According to other studies, the model seems to apply to managers and professional employees in developed countries like U.K., USA.

The need priority model is useful because of its rich and comprehensive view of needs. The theory is still relevant because needs no matter how they are classified, are important for understanding behaviour. It is simple to understand that it has a common-sense appeal for managers. It has been widely accepted-often uncritically, because of its immense intuitive appeal only. It has survived, obviously more because of its aesthetics than because of its scientific validity.

Fredrick Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

Frederick Herzberg is a distinguished Professor of Management at the University of Utah. After training as a psychologist he studied industrial mental health, For many years he has been conducting a programme of research and application on human motivation in the work situation and its effects on the individual’s job satisfaction and mental health.

While Maslow propounded a theory of intrinsic motivation Frederick Herzberg extended the work of Maslow and developed a theory of external motivation’, where he holds the manager responsible for employee motivation.

Herzberg theory of motivation can be better understood by analysing the following concepts :

  1. Herzberg’s criticism of the Classical Theory of Motivation.
  2. The Two Factor Theory (Hygiene-Motivation or Maintenance Motivation theory). 
  3. Job enrichment.

Critique Of The Classical Theory

Herzberg vehemently criticised the classical theory of motivation which implies the “Carrot and Stick Policy”,

He opined that the traditional concept of motivation proposed the direct action manager who believes in the policy that “the surest and least circumlocuted ways of getting someone to do something is to kick him in the pants—give him what might be called as the Kita”. He identifies various forms of Kita namely

1. Negative Psychological Kita: This relates to the use of psychological force to get things done.

2. Negative Physical Kita: This relates to the use of actual physical force to get things done. Herzberg feels that Negative Kita with its emphasis on the ‘stick’ does not lead to motivation but ‘movement’. Having realised these managers have started using what he calls as “Positive Kita’.

Kita’ can be identified with the ‘Carrot’ in the ‘Carrot and Stick’ policy. It implies getting things done by offering rewards and incentives in the form of more status and promotions etc. Herzberg criticises the use of both Negative Kita and Positive Kita and postulates that the use of both leads only to short term results and not long term motivation. While highlighting the limitations of the industrial theory of motivation, Herzberg has proposed an alternative theory which is widely known today as the ‘Two Factor Theory.

The Two Factor Theory

Herzberg and his colleagues surveyed two hundred engineers and accountants representing a cross-section of a Pittsburg industry. These men were asked to remember times when they felt exceptionally good about their jobs, the investigators probed for the reasons why they felt as they did, asking for a description of the sequence of events that gave that Teeming. The questions were then repeated for sequences of events that made them feel exceptionally bad about their jobs. The responses were then classified to determine what type of events led to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.

In analysing the data from these interviews, Herzberg concluded that people have two different categories of needs that are essentially independent of each other and affect behaviour in different ways. He classified these needs into :

Adam (Animal) Needs :

These are the set of needs stemming from man’s overriding need to avoid physical and social deprivation. Using a biblical analogy Herzberg relates these to Adam’ conception of the nature of man. when Adam was expelled from the ‘garden of Eden he was immediately faced with the task of satisfying the needs which stem from his animal nature; viz. the needs for food, warmth, avoidance of pain, safety, security, belongingness etc. These factors have been labelled as ‘Hygiene’ factors by Herzberg. Hygiene factors as stated in the above context represent the need to avoid pain from the environment. They are not an intrinsic part of the job but they are related to the context under which a job is performed. They are associated with negative feelings and are environment’ related factors. They must be viewed as preventive measures that remove sources of dissatisfaction from the environment. Like physical hygiene, they do not lead to growth but only prevent deterioration. Herzberg believes that hygiene factors create a zero level of motivation but they have to be maintained at the proper level to prevent negative motivation. Hence he has also called these hygiene factors ‘maintenance’ factors. The presence of these prevents dissatisfaction but does not lead to satisfaction.

Abraham (Human) Needs :

These are the factors associated with job satisfaction and are those that stem from man’s needs to relate his human potential for perfection. In biblical terms this is the “Abraham’ conception of the nature of man, Abraham was created in the image of God was capable of great accomplishments, of development, of growth, of transcending his environmental limitations, of self-realisation etc. According to Herzberg, it is the satisfaction on these needs that motivates a person and Herzberg has rightly labelled them as motivators.

Motivators are associated with positive feelings of the employees about the job. related to the content of the job. They make people satisfied with their job.

Hygiene (Maintenance) Factors and Motivational Factors in Organisations:

Herzberg two factor theory identified five strong determinants of job satisfaction and five of job dissatisfaction which is presented in the following chart:

Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Job Dissatisfaction:

Herzberg postulates a drastically opposite view of the traditional view of the relationship between satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Traditionally ‘satisfaction’ and `dissatisfaction’ have been viewed as opposite ends of a single continuum i.e. when certain factors like good pay, the opportunity for growth, healthy working environment are present in the job the employee will be satisfied. When they are absent’ he is dissatisfied’. Thus traditionally the absence of dissatisfaction is satisfaction and vice versa.

Herzberg’s findings undertake that dissatisfaction is not simply the opposite of satisfaction. Using the motivation Hygiene approach we can say the presence of ‘Hygiene’ factors like salary, supervision and working conditions will only lead to the absence of dissatisfaction but will not to satisfaction. Similarly, the absence of achievement, recognition and other motivators will only lead to the absence of satisfaction’ but will not lead to dissatisfaction. DO

Thus according to Herzberg job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are independent dimensions and are not two opposite poles on the same continuum. Satisfaction is affected by motivators and dissatisfaction by hygiene factors.

In summary, we can conclude that the factors involved in producing job dissatisfaction are separate and distinct from the factors that lead to job satisfaction. Thus the opposite of job satisfaction would not be job dissatisfaction but rather ‘no job satisfaction’ similarly the opposite of job dissatisfaction is ‘no job satisfaction’ not satisfaction’ with one’s job. Job satisfaction is thus made up of two unipolar traits.

To explain the above concept Herzberg traces an analogy to human ‘vision’ and ‘hearing’. To quote Herzberg “job satisfaction is vision and job dissatisfaction is hearing”. From the above statement, it can be readily seen that we are dealing with two separate dimensions. The stimulus for ‘vision’ is “light’ and increasing and decreasing light shall not affect man’s hearing, A stimulus for ‘audition’ is ‘sound’ and similarly, increasing or decreasing sound, will not affect vision.

Administrative Implications Of Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

The Concept Of Job Enrichment

After analysing the different factors Herzberg gives a solution to administrators on motivating their employees. Herzberg criticises the traditional job enlargement and job rotation concepts that were practised by administrators. He feels that a mere change like the job or rotation within similar jobs does not lead to motivation. Herzberg postulates the concept of job enrichment to motivate the employees.

Job enrichment according to Herzberg is deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope and challenges in work. This he calls “vertical job loading’ where the opportunities for achievement, responsibility, recognition, growth and learning are interwoven into the job.

Job enrichment implies looking for ways of removing some controls while retaining or increasing an individuals accountability for his own work; giving a person a complete natural unit of work; granting additional authority to an employee in his job; increasing job freedom; making reports directly available to the man himself rather than to the supervisor; introducing new and more difficult tasks not previously undertaken etc. 

Thus according to Herzberg, Job Enrichment can be achieved by increasing maintenance factors (or at least keeping them constant at the required levels) and at the same time increasing the motivators. To quote Herzberg “For management the challenge is task organisation, to call out the motivators, and task support to provide adequate conditions, etc., thus satisfying both the Adam and the Abraham natures of man in work.

Criticism Of Herzberg’s Theory

Herzberg’s theory has been as controversial as it has been influential. The major limitations are :

1. Limitations of Research Methodology

Herzberg’s model has been criticised as a method be bound’. The theory has been attacked because it is limited by the critical incident method’ which takes into consideration only the extremely satisfying and dissatisfying job experiences

2. Lacks Objectivity

Herzberg’s methodology has been criticised as a subjective methodology that has an inbuilt scope for bias. Critiques have opined that using the critical incident BME 2 method may cause people to recall only recent experiences. Moreover, when the researcher aims to evaluate the responses himself there is a large scope for subjectivity.

3. Limited Applicability

Empirical evidence has shown that the theory is most applicable to the higher-level workers i.e., managers, accountants, engineers, Studies of manual workers are less supportive of the theory. Herzberg study hence is not regarded as representative of the workforce in general.

4. Mis-interpretation of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

The theory has been criticised for dot having focussed too much attention on satisfaction and dissatisfaction rather than on the performance level of the subordinates. Empirical evidence has shown that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are two opposite poles of the same continuum. Individuals on the job are affected by any change either in the job context or in the content.

Summing Up

Despite these criticisms, Herzberg’s two-factor theory has made a significant contribution towards enhancing the administrator’s basic understanding of human behaviour. He advanced a theory that was simple to grasp based on the same ’empirical data and equally significant — he offers specific action recommendations for administrators to improve employee motivational levels. He drew the attention of practising administrators to the much-neglected job content’ factors.



Motivation And Theories Of Motivation – Part I

Motivation And Theories Of Motivation

Motivation may be defined as the complex of forces inspiring a person at work, to intensify his willingness to use his capacities for the achievement of certain objectives. Motivation is something that drives a person into action and continues to a great extent. To quote Dalton Mc. Farland “Motivation refers to how urges, drives, desires, aspirations, striving or needs. direct control or explain the behaviour of human beings. Technically the term “Motivation’ can be traced to the Latin word ‘mover, which means ‘to move. This meaning is evident in the following comprehensive definition. A motive is an inner state that energies, activates, or moves (hence motivation) and that directs or channels behaviour towards goals.

Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of the administration in inspiring the workforce. It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinates or to create the ‘will to work’ among the subordinates. Unfortunately, motivation is not a simple concept. It involves a complex combination of individual needs, drives, tensions, discomfort and expectations. Thus understanding individual motivation requires continual updating to reflect the most current mix of goals.

Characteristic Features Of Motivation

The process of motivation is characterized by the following:

1. Motivation is an internal feeling

Motivation points to energetic forces within individuals that drive them to behave in certain ways and to environmental forces that trigger these drives.

2. Motivation produces goal-directed behaviour

Motivation has got a profound influence on human behaviour, it harnesses human energy to organizational requirements. There is the notion of goal orientation on the part of individuals, their behaviour is directed towards something.

3. Motivation contains systems orientation

It considers those forces in the individuals and in their surrounding environments that direct the individuals either to reinforce the intensity of their drive and the direction of this energy or to dissuade them from their cause of action and redirect their efforts.

4. Motivation can be either positive or negative

Positive motivation or the carrot approach, offers something precious to the persons in the form of additional pay, incentives, praise etc., for satisfactory performance. Negative motivation or stick approach emphasizes penalties while controlling performance (reprimands, threat of demotion).

5. Motivation means bargaining

Behaviour is what people ‘DO’. Motivation is ‘WHY’ they do it? Barnard explained motivation in the form of inducements contribution’ theory. It focuses on workers and organizations endeavouring to find what ‘returns (inducements) to workers in exchange, for what degree of cooperation (contributions) from workers will be satisfactory to both parties. The problem of motivation then becomes one of arriving at a “return’ to workers that will coax them the output that is required.

6. Motivation is a complete process

Five reasons can be provided in support of this statement :

  1. Motive is a hypothetical construct.
  2. It cannot be seen.
  3. Often we observe individuals putting a great deal of overtime.
  4. We cannot definitely state whether they are doing it because of the additional income they receive or simply because they enjoy their work. 
  5. Individuals may have a host of needs that are continuously changing, and sometimes, in conflict with each other.

As a result, it becomes exceedingly difficult to observe or measure motivation with certainty. People satisfy their needs in many different ways. A salesman may work hard to earn money; a second salesman may be spurred by his achievement motive and so on. By simply observing salespersons in action it is not easy to differentiate between these groups. Promoting an employee to a new and more challenging task may intensity the drive to work harder in anticipation of the next promotion. Thus, the Brancation of a particular need may gradually lead to an increase in its intensity. Finally, goal-directed behaviour does not always lead to need satisfaction.

7. Motivation and satisfaction are related but not synonymous concepts

Motivation is the drive to satisfy a want or goal. It is concerned with goal-directed behaviour. Satisfaction refers to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied. The term satisfaction’ is used to analyse outcomes already experienced by an employee. Satisfaction is a consequence of rewards and punishments associated with experience…!

Significance of Motivation

Rensis Likert called motivation the core of management. Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of the management in inspiring the workforce. It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinates or to create the will to work among the subordinates. It should also be remembered that a worker may be immensely capable of doing some work, nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work. The creation of a will to work is motivation in the simple but true sense of the term.

In order to motivate workers to work for the organisational goals, the manager must determine the motives or needs of the workers and provide an environment in which appropriate incentives are available for their need satisfaction. If the management is successful in doing so, it will also be successful in increasing the willingness of the workers to work. This will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. There will be better utilisation of resources and worker’s abilities and capacities.

Higher motivation leads to job satisfaction of the workers which can reduce absenteeism turnover and labour unrest. This will create better industrial relations in the enterprise Since there are opportunities in the organisation for the need satisfaction of the workers will be more committed to the organisation and a better workforce will be willing to join the organisation. Motivation will also foster team spirit among the workers and increase their loyalty to the workgroup.

Theories Of Motivation

Organisational effectiveness becomes to a certain degree the question of the management’s ability to motivate its employees, viz., to direct at least a reasonable effort towards the goals of the organisation. Motivation is a highly complex activity that affects and is affected by a host of fontora in the organisation. This complexity has led Administrative Thinkers’ to view motivation from different angles. These interpretations have been classified in the form of “Theories of Motivation’:.

Some of the prominent theories of Motivation are :

  1. The Monistic Theory
  2. The Expectancy Theory
  3. The Equity Theory
  4. The Need Hierarchy
  5. Theory The Two Factor Theory.

The Monistic Theory

The monistic theory of motivation is based upon the notion that man is essentially economic. Individuals are assumed to be highly responsive to monetary rewards. People feel highly motivated when rewarded with more money. This theory seeks a single cause of behaviour viz. – monetary aspect of remuneration or reward. People repeat their behaviour if it leads to rewarding.

The theories in the Classical school, display strong overtones of the monistic theory of motivation. However, later theories like the Human relations theory and the Behavioural theory have postulated that man is not motivated by money alone, but he is “multi motivated”.

The Expectancy Theory

Victor H. Vroom in his work and Motivation (1964) has developed the Expectancy. Theory of Motivation. The theory state that motivation is an outcome of the interaction of the values one seeks and one’s estimate of the probability of certain action leading to those values. Among others, the two key variables in his model are, therefore, Expectancies and Valences and the relationship is expressed as follows :

Motivation = Valence x Expectancy

Valence is the strength of a persons preference for a particular outcome. Obviously, for certain things, a person valence will be positive and for certain others, negative. If he is indifferent to an outcome, then valence is zero. Thus, valences could be regarded to range from +1 to – 1. 

Expectancy is the perceived belief concerning the likelihood that a particular behavioural act will be followed by a particular outcome. It is the estimate of the probability of an outcome from an action. Most of the time it is based on previous experience. It is obvious that this probability would range from zero to one.

Expectancy and Valence combine to determine one’s motivation. In an organizational situation, on the basis of their experience, people learn what things they value more highly than others and what probability exists to attain the same action. . Accordingly, on the basis of their calculations, they develop a drive for action called motivation. In order to motivate a person to work, first of all, management should, therefore, know what he prefers, how strongly he prefers it and then, ‘improve the probability of securing that outcome. What an individual prefers is largely within an individuals control, though through information and experience, it is possible to alter preferences and create positive values for certain outcomes. In any case, once valences are known, management can always increase expectancy by strengthening the connection between behaviour and outcome. This could be done through improved communication or by showing to an employee that others have realized similar values. If he behaves in a particular way, he will also have a similar outcome.

Equity Theory

The Equity theory has been propounded by J. Stacy Adams. This theory of work motivation is based on the social exchange process. The theory points out that people are motivated to maintain a fair relationship between their performance and reward in comparison to others. There are two assumptions on which the theory works :

  • Individuals make contributions ( inputs ) for which they expect certain rewards recognition.
  • Security Personal development Benefits
  • Friendship opportunity

The exchange relationship between a person’s inputs/outcomes in relation to those of other persons may be of three types: overpaid inequity, underpaid inequity, and equity.

Implications of the Theory

Equity theory has a number of implications for managers. First, the theory makes managers release that the equity motive tends to be one of the most important motives of the people in the organisation. Therefore, the equity concept should be given adequate considerations in designing a motivation system. The equal pay for Equal work principle is based on this theory. Second, feelings or perceptions in the work setting are important factors in the work setting. Therefore, management should take their aspect into consideration and attempts should be made to develop the perceptual skills of the people.

Various Leadership Theories

Leadership Theories

Leadership is a crucial ingredient of organisational effectiveness. Numerous efforts have been made by social scientists to analyse the phenomenon of leadership. Broadly we could classify these contributions into four theories, namely:

  1. The Great Man theory
  2. The Trait theory
  3. The Behavioural theory
  4. The Situational theory

The Great Man Theory

The Great Man theory of leadership is perhaps the oldest of all possible theories. It suggests that a successful administrator is an innately competent leader who is “born rather than made”. Implied in this theory is the belief that the basis for the success of a leader cannot be identified by studying him or his methods. Those who play faith in this approach tend to emphasise executive selection and not executive development in their personnel programmes.

The Trait Theory

In contrast to the Great Man theory, the trait theory postulates that successful leadership is correlated with the personality characteristics of the appointed leader and these can be systematically studied.

Early writers of the trait theory postulated that leadership is largely a matter of personality, a function of specific traits. Trait theorists suggest that leaders differ from followers for a small number of key traits and these traits remain unchanged across time. The trait theory attempts to isolate the attributes of successful and unsuccessful leaders and, using this list of traits, predict the success or failure of potential leaders. If traits can be measured in some way, most organizations can easily select for leadership only persons well suited by their personality or temperament for such roles. 

According to Keith Davis, the major traits that have an impact on successful organisations are:


Research generally shows that leaders have higher intelligence than the average intelligence of their followers. Interestingly, however, leaders cannot be exceedingly much more intelligent than their followers.

Social Maturity And Breadth

Leaders tend to be emotionally stable and mature and to have broad interests and activities, they have an assured, respectful self-concept. Inner motivation and achievement drive: Leaders have relatively intense motivational drives of the achievement type. They strive for intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards.

Human Relations Attitudes

Successful leaders recognize the worth and dignity of their followers and can empathize with them.

The Trait theory suffers from serious lacunae. Attempts by various social scientists to determine exactly the Traits of a leader have resulted in a complete failure. “Fifty years of study have failed to produce one personality trait or a set of qualities that can be used to discriminate leaders and non-leaders”.

Empirical studies suggest that leadership is a dynamic process, varying from situation to situation the changes in leaders, followers and situations. These studies gave an impetus for the behavioural and situational theories of leadership.

The Behavioural Theory

The Behavioural theories attempt to describe leadership in terms of what leaders do. According to this approach, leadership is effective role behaviour. Leadership is shown by a person’s actions.

According to this theory, the followers depend upon those leaders who satisfy their needs. They extend support and cooperation as long as the leaders satisfy their needs and motivate them to achieve the objectives and goals of the organisation. Hollander and Julian have emphasised this point when they said. “the person in the role of a leader who fulfils expectations and achieves group goals provides rewards for others which are reciprocated in the form of status, esteem, and heightened influence. Because leadership embodies a two-way influence relationship, recipients of influence assertions may respond by asserting influence in turn …The very sustenance of the relationship depends upon some yielding to influence on both sides”.

Numerous studies have been conducted by Behavioural researchers in Industrial situations: The most important among them are: 

 a) Michigan studies

After studying numerous industrial situations, the Michigan researchers identified two leadership styles-Employee-centered and Production-centered influencing employee performance and productivity.

The Michigan studies prescribe the employee-oriented style of leadership to increase productivity. They postulated that the supervisory control and production centred leadership frustrate the employees and have a detrimental effect on their morale.

The Michigan studies were compatible with the prevailing system in post-Hawthorne America and as such became very popular. Researchers were able to identify the specific behaviour that influenced employee behaviour and postulated that people-oriented leadership should take precedence before work-oriented leadership. Their efforts led to a widespread belief in the 1950s that an employee orientéd leadership type was always superior.

 b) The Ohio State University Studies

Based on an analysis of actual leadership behaviour in a wide variety of situations, the Ohio state leadership studies identify two leadership behaviours Viz. Focus on structure D Focus on people. 

A leader who focussed on people emphasised the needs of the people. His main function is to facilitate cooperative goal attainment among followers while providing opportunities for their personal growth and development. His main focus is on the needs of the people – the overall goal being the integration of individual and organisational goals. 

While the Michigan studies plotted leader behaviour in a single continuum (focus on work/ structure…… focus on people) the Ohio studies postulated that the behaviour of a leader could be a mix of both dimensions (viz. a mix of focus on work/ structure and focus on people).

They postulated that leader behaviour could vary in the following four dimensions:

  1. The leader accords high priority to people and low priority to the structure.
  2. The leader accords high priority to structure and low priority to people.
  3. The leader accords low priority to structure and low priority to people.
  4. The leader accords high priority to structure and high priority to people.

The Blake & Mouton Managerial Grid

Robert R.Blake and Janę S.Mouton have developed a managerial grid that encompasses five different styles of leadership. These leadership styles are based on the variables of concern for structure (task/production) and concern for people (relationships).

They define concern for production and concern for people as follows : 

Concern for production:

This is not limited to things only. Production may be assessed through the number of creative ideas that applied research turns into useful products, procedures or processes: quality, and thoroughness of staff services, workload and efficiency and measurements as well as units of output.

the concern of people:

It is not confined to narrow considerations of interpersonal warmth and Inendliness. It covers a variety of concerns which can include concern for the degree of Personal commitment to completing a job for which one is responsible; accountability based on trust rather than force: self-esteem the desire for a sense of security in work with co-workers leading to a healthy working climate.

According to Blake and Mouton, the two concerns i.e. concern for production and concern 101 people are two sides of the same coin and should be utilised with maximum and integrated concern to achieve the objectives of the organisation. They postulated that people and production are complementary rather than mutually exclusive. The leadership style of the leader could be a combination of both with a difference of degree. Blake and Mouton have visualised five leadership styles and have positioned them in the form of a Managerial Grid.

The Managerial Grid of Blake and Moutan

Ebben Blake and Moutan have described the five styles as follows:

1. Impoverished leadership style:

This style implies exertion of minimum effort on part of the leader to get the required work done. In effect, the leader exerts himself only to that extent as is appropriate to sustain organisation relationships. The leader, therefore, according low priority to both production and people.

2. Country club leadership style :

This leadership style implies that the leader accords high priority to people and low priority to production. The leader accords thoughtful attention to the needs of the people as he believes that satisfying relationships lead to a comfortable and friendly organisational atmosphere and work tempo.

3. Middle road style :

This leadership style implies that the leader accords a balanced priority to both production and people. The leader employing the middle road style believes that adequate organisation performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get the work done while maintaining the employee morale at a satisfactory level. The middle road leader, therefore, accords moderate but equal priority to production and people

4. Task leadership style :

This leadership style implies that the leader accords a high priority to tasks and a low priority to people. The task-oriented leader believes that efficiency in operation results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements. non interfere to a minimum degree.

5. Team leadership style:

This leadership style implies that a leader accords equal and high priority to production and people. A leader employing the Team leadership style believes that work accomplishment from committed people: and interdependence through a common state in the organisation purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect.

The Managerial Grid is based on massive practical research into behavioural sciences in the industrial setting. The managerial grid is more than just a theory in human behaviour. It is a tested science of management theory employing systematic principles which can be taught and which may then be applied in the day to day situations. The exciting aspect of the managerial grid is its effectiveness in improving people’s attitudes and behaviour throughout an entire organization to the benefit of the organization. It promises to turn the art of managing into a ‘science’. It has been successfully applied in the industry and has contributed greatly to increased profits and union-management relations.

Situational Theory

Both Trait and Behavioural approaches to leadership prove to fall short of a comprehensive and adequate theory of leadership styles. Each of the theories attempted to isolate a broad dimension of leadership behaviour and indulged profusely in oversimplification. The theories failed to link leadership with important performance indicators such as production, efficiency and satisfaction. Due to these lacunae, they were not of much use to practising managers.

The Situational theories have attempted to overcome these lacunae. The Situational theories take the position that leadership is a complex social and interpersonal process and to understand it fully we need to comprehend the situation in which a leader operates. Therefore the Situational theories postulated that the variables in each situation must be analysed before optimum leadership styles can be selected.

The Important Situational Theories are

  1. Fielder’s contingency model
  2. House’s path-goal model
  3. Life Cycle Theory Of Leadership

Fielder’s Contingency Model

Fred E.Fiedler postulates that there is no best style of leadership. According to Fiedler, there can only be a most effective style of leadership in any given situation. The crux of Fiedler’s theory is that a leadership style may be effective or ineffective depending upon the important elements of the situation.

According to the leadership contingency model developed by Fiedler, three major situational variables seem to determine whether a given situation is favourable (Fiedler defines the favourableness of a situation as the degree to which the situation enables the leader to exert his influence over the group) to leaders :

The leader-member relations refers to the degree of confidence trust and respect followers have in the leader. It indicates the degree to which group members like the leader and are willing to accept the leader’s behaviour, as an influence on them. If followers are willing to follow because of charisma, expertise, competence, or mutual respect, the leader has little need to depend on task structure or position power. If, on the other hand, the too favourable.

Task structure :

It measures the extent to which the task performed by subordinates is routine or non-routine. Task structure refers to the degree to which the task requirements are clearly defined, (clarity of goal’s) the correctness of a decision can be easily verified (verifiability of decisions made) and there are alternative solutions to the task problem’s multiplicity of options to solve problems.

Leader position power :

The most obvious manner in which the leader secures power is by accepting and performing the leadership role. Position power in the contingency model refers to the power inherent in the leader’s organizational position.

It refers to the degree to which the leader has at his disposal various rewards and sanctions, his authority over the group’s members, and the degree to which this authority is supported by the organization.

The most favourable situation for leaders to influence their group is one in which they are well-liked by the members (good leader-member relations), have a powerful position (high position power);, and are directing a well-defined job (high task structure); for example, a well-liked general making inspection in an army camp. On the other hand, the most unfavourable situation for leaders is one in which they are disliked, have little position power, and face an unstructured task, such as an unpopular head of a voluntary hospital fund-raising committee.

Having developed this model for classifying group situations, Fiedler has attempted to determine what the most effective leadership style-task oriented or relationship-oriented — seems to be for each of the situations. In a re-examination of old leadership studies and an analysis of new studies, Fiedler has concluded that :

Relationship-oriented leaders tend to perform best in situations that are intermediate in favourableness.

Although Fiedler’s model is useful to a leader, he seems to be reverting to a single continuum of leader behaviour, suggesting that there are only two basic leader behaviour styles, task-oriented and relationship-oriented. Most evidence indicates that leader behaviour must be plotted on two separate axes rather than on a single continuum, thus, a leader who is high on-task behaviour is not necessarily high or low on relationship behaviour. Any combination of the two dimensions may occur.

House’s Path-Goal Model

The path-Goaltheory, proposed by Robert J. House, is an important landmark in the development of leadership theory. Like other situational theories, the path-goal model attempts to predict leadership effectiveness in different situations. According to this theory, leaders are effective because they influence followers motivation, ability to perform and satisfaction. The term path-goals is employed because the leader facilitates the path to work goals and provides rewards for achieving them. The path-goal model proposes that individuals are satisfied with their jobs if they believe it leads to desirable outcomes, and they work hard if they believe that this effort will result in desirable outcomes. Subordinates are motivated by the leader’s style to the extent it influences the goal paths and goal attractiveness.

The Main Propositions of the Path theory are

1. Leader behaviour is acceptable and satisfying to the extent that the subordinates perceive such behaviour as an immediate source of satisfaction, as instrumental to future satisfaction. Leader behaviour is motivational if such behaviour results in the satisfaction of subordinate’s needs and such behaviour complement the environment of workers by providing the guidance, clarity of direction and rewards necessary for effective performance,

2. According to the Path goal theory, leaders should motivate subordinates by clarifying the path to personal rewards that result from attaining work goals. The path is clarified by eliminating confusion or conflicting ideas that the subordinate may hold. The leader should also increase the number and kinds of rewards available to subordinates. He should provide guidance and counsel to clarify how these rewards can be obtained. In other words, it is the manager’s task to provide the subordinate with a better fix on the job, to help clarify realistic expectancies and reduce the barriers to the accomplishment of valued goals.

Leaders should, in a nutshell,

i) Clear Paths

ii) Clarify goals

iii) Provide support

iv) Provide rewards

v) Analyse the situation, task and employees’ needs

Leaders can perform these strategic functions, according to the path-goal model, by adopting the following styles of behaviour : 

  1. Supportive: Leader is friendly and approachable to the employees; shows concern for status, well-being and needs of the employees, treats them as his equals. This is similar to what Ohio State researchers labelled consideration’.
  2. Directive: LThe leader here focuses on planning, organizing, and coordinating the activities of subordinates. He defines the standards of performance, lets subordinates know what is expected of them. It is similar to the Ohio State researchers initiating structure’.
  3. Participative: LThe leader here consults the employees, solicits their suggestions, incorporates good decisions.
  4. Achievement-oriented: The leader adopting this style sets challenging goals; expects the workers to perform at their best, continuously seeks increments in their performance etc.

The Situational Factors

While exercising leadership styles, the leader must consider two groups of situational variables – characteristics of subordinates and work environment. 

Characteristics of subordinates:

The style selected by the leader should be compatible with the abilities, needs and personalities of the followers. If the followers are high in their Totability, a supportive style would suffice; if they have low ability then a highly structured and directing style is necessary. Subordinates with high needs for affiliation will be satisfied with a considerate leader. But subordinates with a high need for achievement will probably prefer a task-oriented leader. Again, the personality of the subordinates is an important Od contingency variable in the path-goal model, Internally-oriented employees, (internals) who believe they can control their own behaviour, prefer leaders who demonstrate more supportive behaviour. On the other hand, externally-oriented (externals) employees who believe that fate controls their behaviour prefer directive leadership,

Work Environment :

The environmental variables include factors that are not within the control of the subordinate but which are significant to the satisfaction or to the ability to Ai perform effectively. These include the subordinate tasks, formal authority system of the organization and the primary workgroup. Any of these environmental factors can motivate or constrain the subordinate. For example, the subordinate could be motivated by the workgroup and gain satisfaction from coworker’s acceptance for sitting through the job according to the group norms. House asserts that if the subordinates are working on highly unstructured jobs characterized by a high degree of ambiguity in roles, leader directiveness is necessary. In other words, when the task is unstructured, the worker feels that his path to satisfaction is bumpy and prefers to be directed. Conversely, if the employees are working on structured and well-defined tasks, leader directiveness is redundant and a supportive style will do. The relationship between directive leadership and subordinate satisfaction with task structure as a contingency variable is depicted.

It reveals that for the structured task high level of directive behaviour is associated with low job satisfaction. It also makes clear that a high level of directiveness is associated with high job satisfaction for unstructured jobs. In the ultimate analysis, the path-goal theory proposes that leader behaviour will be motivational to the extent that it assists subordinates to cope with environmental uncertainties, a leader who can reduce the uncertainties of the job is considered to be a motivator because he increases the subordinate’s expectations that their efforts will lead to desirable rewards. The degree to which the subordinate sees certain job behaviours as leading to various rewards and the desirability of those rewards to the individual (preference) largely determine job satisfaction and performance. The path-goal model compels the leader to consider the individual subordinates as well as the situation.

Life Cycle Theory

The Life Cycle Theory has been propounded by Hersey and Blanchard. The theory proposes that the leader has to match his leadership style according to the needs of maturity of subordinates which moves in stages and has a cycle. (Therefore, this theory is also known as the life-cycle theory of leadership). There are two basic considerations in this model: leadership style and maturity of subordinates.

Leadership styles

Leadership styles may be classified into four categories based on the combination of two considerations :

  1. Relationship Behaviour
  2.  Task Behaviour

Relationship behavioural is determined by socio-emotional support provided by the leader. Task behaviour is seen in terms of the amount of guidance and direction provided by the leader.

 Maturity: Maturity in this model has been used in the context of the ability and willingness of people for directing their own behaviour. Ability refers to the knowledge and skills of an individual to do the job and is called job maturity. Willingness’ refers to psychological maturity and has much to do with the confidence and commitment of the individual. These variables of maturity should be considered only about a specific job to be performed. That is to say, an individual or a group is not mature or immature in any total sense. All persons tend to be more or less mature about a specific task, function, or objective that a leader is attempting to accomplish through their efforts. In addition to. assessing the level of maturity of individuals in the group, he has to assess the maturity level of the group as a whole, particularly if the group interacts frequently together in the same work area. 

  1. Low ability and low willingness- low maturity
  2. Low ability and high willingness- low to moderate maturity
  3. High ability and low willingness- moderate to high maturity
  4. High ability and high willingness-high maturity

Combining leadership styles and maturity  If we combine leadership styles and maturity, that is, the leadership style which is appropriate at a given level of maturity, we may arrive at the relationship between the two.

Thus, there are four leadership styles, each being appropriate to a specific level of maturity. : The four leadership styles are: telling, selling participating and delegating

Leadership Theories – Nature, Functions, Styles

Leadership Theories – Nature, Functions, Styles

The whole summary of leadership theories lies in the fact that they are all thoughts and analyses of different thinkers on how and why certain sets of people become leaders and what are their qualities. There are different leadership thoerires that explain different types of leadership in public administration. Read on to know about the nature, functions, styles and the importance of leadership in public administration in detail.

A group of people coming together to achieve a common objective gives rise to Organisations. Group activity is the basic characteristic of all organisations. The organisational objective can be achieved only by influencing the behaviour of the group towards the objectives of the Organisation. No doubt, the behaviour of the employees can be influenced by the exercise of Power and Authority. However, total reliance on these elements for desirable positive behaviour in the organisation may not bring the expected results. The mere exercise of power and authority may not have a long term effect in ensuring the enduring cooperation of the employees towards the attainment of organisational objectives. Such willing cooperation can be achieved only by creating an environment with Rightight Leadership.

Definitions For Leadership

Leadership has been defined by various thinkers in many ways. Some of the important definitions are given below:

  • According to Louis. A.Allen – “A leader guides and directs other people. A leader gives the efforts of his followers a direction and purpose by influencing their behaviour”.
  • According to Theo Haimann– “Leadership is the process by which an executive imaginatively directs, guides and influences the work of others in choosing and attaining specified goals by mediating between the individuals and the organisation in such a manner that both will obtain maximum satisfaction”.
  • According to James Cribbin – “Leadership is a process of influence on a group in a particular situation at a given point of time and in a specific set of circumstances that stimulates people to strive to attain organisational objectives, giving them the experience of helping attain the common objectives, and satisfaction with the type of leadership provided”.
  • According to Terry and Franklin – “Leadership is the relationship in which one person (the leader) influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain goals desired by the leader and/or group”.
  • According to George R.Terry, – “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group obobjectivesAccording to Robert Tannenbaum, – “Leadership is the interpersonal influence exercised in the situation and directed, through the communication process toward the attainment of specialised goal or goals”.
  • According to Koontz and O’Donnell,– achievement of a common goal”.
  • Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard have attempted all-embracing ring definition of leadership. According to them, leadership is “The process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in efforts goal achievement in a given situation”.

Nature Of Leadership

An analysis of the above definitions brings out the following characteristics of leadership :

  1. Leadership is a process of influence exercised by the leader on group members. A person is said to influence others when they are willing to carry out his wishes and accept his advice, guidance and direction. Successful leaders can influence the behaviour, attitudes and beliefs of their followers.
  2. Leadership is related to a particular situation at a given point of time under a specific set of circumstances. That means leadership styles will be different under different circumstances. to to. At one point in time, the subordinates may accept the autocratic behaviour of the leader as while at a different point in time and under a different set of circumstances, only participative leadership style may be successful.
  3. Leadership is the function of motivating people to strive willingly to attain organisational objectives. A leader is considered successful when he is subordinate the individual interests of the followers to the general interests of the group. When this congruency is achieved, the workers act enthusiastically to achieve these objectives. Followers are satisfied with the type of leadership provided. A good leader acts as the representative of the group and works to protect the interests of its members. He lets the subordinates influence their behaviour particularly when the subordinates are knowledgeable and competent. He also shares credit, blame, information, ideas, opinion and experience with the subordinates. Un a
  4. Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor that binds a group together and motivates it towards certain goals. It is a process of stimulating members of the group towards the achievement of predetermined goals. Leadership is a part of management, but not all of it. A manager is required to plan and organise and so on, but all we ask of a leader is that he gets others to follow.
  5. An individual is said to be a leader only when he is accepted as a leader by a group of persons and there is communication between the leader and the group. Leadership is present when both these factors are there in a particular situation. A self-made leader may dream of himself as a leader but he cannot be called a leader if there is none to accept him as a leader.

Importance Of Leadership

Leadership is an important factor for making any organisation successful. Without a good leader, an organisation cannot function efficiently and effectively. Since the Organisation is basically a deliberate creation of human beings for certain specified objectives, the activities of its members need to be directed in a certain way. Any departure from this way will lead to inefficiency in the organisation, Direction of activities in the organisation is affected by the leader. Peter Drucker has pointed out that managers (business leaders) are the basic scarcest resources of any business enterprise.

The importance of good leadership can be discussed as follows:

1. Motivating employees:

As discussed earlier, motivation is necessary for work performance. The higher the motivation, the better would be the performance. A good leader is exercising his · leadership motivates the employees for high performance. Good leadership in the organisation itself is a motivating factor for individuals.

2. Creating confidence:

A good leader may create confidence in his followers by directing them giving them advice and getting through good results in the organisation. Once an individual with the help of a leader puts efficiency, he tries to maintain it as he acquires a certain level of confidence towards his capacity. Sometimes, individuals fail to recognise 2010 their qualities and capabilities to work in the absence of good direction.

3. Building morale

Morale is expressed as attitudes of employees towards the organisation, bot management and voluntary cooperation to offer their ability to the organisation. High morale leads to high productivity and organisational stability. Through providing good leadership in the organisation, employees’ morale can be raised high ensuring high productivity and stability.

Thus, good leadership is essential in all aspects of managerial functions whether it be motivation, communication or direction. Good leadership ensures success in the organisation, and unsatisfactory human performance in any organisation can be primarily attributed to poor leadership.

Functions Of Leadership

A leader performs numerous functions. The range and variety of functions performed by a leader differ from situation to situation. According to Hicks and Gullet the function of a leader can include the following:

1. Arbitration

When organizational members disagree on a course of action to be taken, the leader mạy sometimes resolve the problem by arbitrating or by deciding on the solution himself. In any event, it is most important that a decision be reached as soon as possible so that the organization can continue operation without interruption or change of pace. To Suggesting: Suggestions by the leader permit him to get his ideas across to “his subordinates without resorting to direct order. At the same time, the subordinate’s dignity and sense of participation may be maintained.

2. Supplying objectives

The objectives of an organization are not automatic but must be supplied by the leader. For the organization to be effective, these objectives must be 4,5% suitable to the organization and allow the members to work together.

3. Catalyzing

To start to increase movement in any organization, a force is needed. This force can be supplied by the leader acting as a catalyst to arouse his followers to action.

4. Providing security

By maintaining a positive, optimistic attitude when facing problems, a leader can provide security for his followers. Security is important to organizational members and can be jeopardized by the leader’s attitudes. This is because the attitudes of a leader, whether good or bad, are eventually picked up by the followers.

5. Representing

The leader usually represents his organization to others and likewise serves as a symbol of the organization. Those outsides of the organization probably think of the organization in terms of their impression of the leader. A favourable impression of the leader will probably lead to a favourable impression of the organization and vice versa.

6. Inspiring

One of the human needs is the need to be doing something i.e. worthwhile and important. By letting his followers know that their work is worthwhile and important, a leader inspires followers to accept organizational goals enthusiastically and to work effectively towards their accomplishments.

7. Praising

Another human need is the need for recognition and esteem of others. Leaders can assist in satisfying these needs through sincere praise by letting their employees know that they are important, that their work was appreciated and that the leader has their best interest at heart.

Leadership Qualities

Certain qualities are essential in any leader because they are vital to take the individual towards success. Deficiencies can be eliminated by conscious efforts. Good qualities can be strengthened. But it is not possible to cultivate all the attributes since some are more innate than others. An exhaustive list is not possible. However certain specific and easily identifiable traits can be enlisted on based on practical experience all though several of them fall under psychological terms.

All the qualities listed, however, do not necessarily appear in every leadership situation nor are they all equally required of every leader. Given below is a comprehensive picture of all desirable qualifications.

It is generally agreed that possession of a generous and unusual endowment of physical and nervous energy is the secret of the most successful leaders. Those whose rise in any marked way above the general public has more drive, more endurance, greater vigour of body and mind than the average person. Robust health and basic strength is an asset for the effectiveness of the leader. Every one of us realises how important is the physical and nervous conditions in our work. Sluggishness, apathy, fatigue are generally considered to be the stumbling elements of a good leader. The leader also must recognise that his job is. more demanding than the average worker. Therefore, the leader should be careful about his health and vitality.

The second quality which is clearly predominant in every good leader is a strong sense of a dominant purpose and direction. The leader knows much better what he wants to get done and where he wants to go. It means that he possesses clarity and precision as to the objectives, purpose are aims that he wants to achieve.

The next quality pertains to enthusiasm. The mere presence of a sound purpose is not enough it must be felt to be sound by all. A sound purpose must be supported by dynamic emotion, hope, will to win and a robust sense of joy in the job. Enthusiasm is essential. It is more important because it is self-sustaining. If the leader has real vigour on the physical side and a definite objective on the mental horizon, then enthusiasm is an automatic -offspring. Enthusiasm can be deliberately increased but it requires great energy and deep intellectual conviction. A good leader is always conscious of this fact. He should be a known enthusiast.

Affection and friendliness are essential in a good leader. In fact, affection and friendliness are positive motivating forces over the conduct of those upon whom it is expressed. This will work in more than one direction. The tendency is for friendliness and affection to evoke a reciprocal response. However, the leader has to guard against sycophancy and other evils associated with it in the name of friendliness and affection.

The followers must be able to trust their leaders, The followers want to feel a sense of solidarity, of honesty and reliability towards the leader. The people should gain the trust of confidence. In short, they want the leader to possess integrity. It is not necessary to be a paragon of virtue because it is not possible. But what is required is acting appropriately to the expectations of the group. We may hasten to add here that where there is a divergence of views relating to the major objectives of the organization; then the leader should maintain e his integrity and convince the followers. If he fails, he should quit after giving a reasonable time, making clear to the group the grounds on which he has acted. But these are extraordinary illustrations.

Integrity is demanded another reason also. In a complex society like ours, there are conflicting demands. It becomes society like ours there are conflicting demands. It becomes impossible to have a competent opinion about many issues. Yet the opinion is sought and a decision is expected in the situation, people expect the leader to possess complete integrity. This is a major problem of the entire life philosophy of the individual.

To these above general qualities, Chester Barnard adds four other qualities of a leader. they are

  • Vitality and endurance
  • Decisiveness
  • Persuasiveness
  • Responsibility
  • Intellectual capacity, in order of priority

Millet identifies eight qualities that leaders should possess. They are

  • Good health
  • A sense of machine
  • Interest in other people
  • Intelligence
  • Integrity
  • Persuasiveness
  • Judgement
  • Loyalty

Leadership Styles

The behaviour exhibited by a leader during the supervision of subordinates is known as the leadership style. There are leaders. Basically, three styles are listed out as Autocratic, Democratic, Free rein.

Autocratic/Authoritative/Directive Style:

An autocratic leader centralizes power and decision-making on himself and exercises complete control over the subordinates. He holds over the head of his subordinates the threat of penalties and punishment. He sets the group goals and structures the work. He runs his own show. The problem with this style is that subordinates are made aware of what to do but not why. It may be satisfying for the leader to dictate terms to others continuously but for subordinates, this may be totally frustrating. He breathes so closely down the necks of his subordinates, that he makes effective action impossible. Subordinates are compelled to follow the leader’s directions to the letter even though they may be wrong.

Later when errors creep in, subordinates will avoid responsibility since they were merely obeying. In autocratic situations, frustration, low morale and conflict develop easily. Subordinates are induced to avoid responsibility, initiative and innovative behaviour. Moreover, autocratic leadership can be only as good as the leader is. If the leader is weak and incompetent, the followers will be weak and incompetent. Autocratic style permits quick decision-making and hence can be applied with success in situations where :

  1. The subordinates lack knowledge of company goals.
  2. The subordinates are inexperienced or lack training.
  3. The company endorses fear and punishment as accepted disciplinary techniques.
  4. The leader prefers to be active and dominant in decision-making.
  5. There is little room for error in the final accomplishment.

Again, under conditions of stress, or when great speed and efficiency are required autocratic leadership can yield positive outcomes. It can increase productivity in the long run.

Democratic/Participative Style

In contrast to the autocrat, the democratic leader practices leadership by consultation. He is like a Theory Y leader and invites decision sharing. Here authority is decentralized. Decisions are arrived at after consultation with followers and participation by them. The subordinates are also encouraged to exploit their potential and assume greater challenging responsibilities. The participative leader attaches high importance to both work and people. This style improves the job satisfaction and morale of employees. It helps in gaining the services from a more satisfied and cohesive group. In fact, no manager can perform effectively over an extended period of time, without some degree of employee participation

However, there is no evidence that participation is good for everybody. When subordinates prefer minimum interaction with the leader, participative style may not yield positive results. Furthermore, over a period of time group members develop a frustrating habit of expecting to be consulted on every issue, even those to which they cannot contribute. When they are not consulted, they feel slighted, insulted and become resentful and uncooperative.

Participative leadership style is appropriate where : 

  • The organization has communicated its goals and objectives to the subordinates and the subordinates have accepted them.
  • Rewards and involvement are used as the primary means of motivation and control.
  • The leader truly desires to hear the ideas of his employees before making decisions.
  • The leader wishes to develop analytical and self-control abilities in his subordinates.
  • The workers are reasonably knowledgeable and experienced.
  • The subordinates desire active and true involvement in matters that affect them, just The time for task completion allows for participation.

A participative style is appreciated because:

  • The leader cultivates the decision-making abilities of his subordinates.
  • The leader seriously listens to and thoroughly reviews the ideas of his subordinates and accepts their contributions wherever possible and practical.

The Participative style is attacked on the following grounds:

A participative style is a misleading term. There is always a danger of misinterpretation of decision sharing. Subordinates may view the leader as incompetent to handle crisis baile independently. Participation may also be interpreted as a sign of inefficiency on the part of the leader to deal with the problems and taking decisions. Participative leadership is time-consuming. It is a tough job for the leader to provide a relaxed atmosphere to subordinates so that they actively participate in decision-making. For some leaders, participation is an effective way of passing the buck to others. It is a means of abdication of the responsibility for them.

Free-Rein Leadership Style

Free-rein leadership is a rather complete delegation of authority into the hands of the subordinates so that they must plan, motivate, control and otherwise be responsible for their own actions. The free-rein manager avoids power and relinquishes the leadership position. Then the question arises as to why as the leadership position. Then the question arises as to why certain leaders set out of the leadership role? In a general sense, we can state that leader perceives that the costs associated with leading the greater than the benefits. More specifically the reasons may be lack of self-confidence, fear of failure etc.

The free-rein style would seem to be appropriate under the condition where :

The organizational goals have been communicated well and are acceptable to the subordinates.

  • The leader is interested in delegating decision-making fully.
  • The subordinates themselves are well-trained and highly knowledgeable concerning their tasks and are ready to assume responsibilities.
  • The problem with this abdicative style is that it tends to permit various units of an organization to proceed at cross purposes and can degenerate into chaos. Hence, it should be a rare exception, not a general rule.

Control – Administrative Behavior


Simon’s theory of decision-making has been widely criticised. Simon does not acknowledge the importance that in decision making it is the role of intuition, tradition and faith in decision making. The Simon theory is criticized by the general as providing the framework and providing no detail to guide organizational planners. Using Simon’s actual-based administrative theory Simon’s approach will be much more meaningful when dealing in business administration than in public administration according to scholars.

Controlling is seeing that actual performance is guided towards expected performance. It is an important function of management and is related to all other management functions. All other management functions cannot be completed effectively without the performance of the control function. Control is a comparison and verification process and with the help of this process, a balance in the organisational activities directed towards predetermined goals can be achieved and maintained. It helps in taking corrective measures in case of deviation from the planned course of action.

According to Ernest Dale, “The modern concept of control envisages a system that not only provides a historical record of what has happened to the business as a whole but pinpoints the reasons why it has happened and provides data that enable the chief executive or the departmental head to take corrective steps if he finds he is on the wrong track” Koontz and O’Donnell have defined controlling as the measurement and correction of the performance of activities of subordinates to make sure that enterprise objectives and the plans devised to attain them are being accomplished. Thus, the managerial function of control implies measurement of actual performance, comparing it with the standards set by plans and correction of deviations to assure attainment of objectives according to plans.

Nature Of Control

Managerial control has the following characteristics: –

1. Control is a Function of Management

It is, in fact, a follow-up action to the other functions of management. This function is performed by all the managers in the organisation to control the activities assigned to them.

2. Control is a Dynamic Process

It involves continuous reviews of standards of performance and results in corrective action which may lead to changes in other functions of management.

3. Control is a Continuous Activity

It does not stop anywhere. According to Koontz and O’Donnell. “Just as the navigator or continually takes reading to ascertain whether he is relative to a planned action, so should be the business manager continually take reading to assure himself that his enterprise or department is on course.

4. Control is Forward Looking

It is related to the future as the past cannot be controlled. It is usually preventive as the presence of control systems leads to minimizing wastages, losses, and deviations from standards. It should be noted that control does not curtail the rights of individuals. It simply keeps a check on the performance of individuals.

5. Planning and Controlling are closely related to each other

According to Billy E. Goetz, “Managerial planning seeks consistent, integrated and articulated programme while managerial control seeks to compel events to conform to plans”. : As a matter of fact, planning is based on control and control is based on planning. The process of control uses certain standards for measuring performance which is laid down by planning. The control process, in turn, may reveal the deficiency of planning and may lead to the revision of planning. It may also lead to the setting of new goals, changing the organisational structure, improving staffing and making major changes in the techniques of directing.

6. The Essence of Control in Action

The performance of control is achieved only when corrective action is taken based on the feedback information. It is the only action that adjusts performance to predetermined standards whenever deviations occur. A good system of control facilitates timely action so that there is a minimum waste of time and energy.

Significance Of Controls

Control consists in verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plans adopted, the instructions issued and principles established. It has for object to point out weaknesses and errors to rectify them and prevent a recurrence. It operates on everything, things, people, action. Control is an important function of management. Without control, a manager cannot do a complete job of managing. All other functions are the preparatory steps for getting the work done and control is concerned with making sure that there is proper execution of these functions. Control is necessary whenever a manager assigns duties and delegates authority to a subordinate. He must exercise control over the actions of his subordinates so that he can ensure that the delegated authority is being used properly.

The road signals at a busy road crossing appropriately illustrate the significance of control. Just as road signals are essential to ensure accident-free and smooth traffic management control devices are necessary for any organisation for its smooth functioning. By controlling, the manager ensures that resources are obtained and used economically and efficiently for the achievement of organisational objectives. A good control system provides timely information to the manager which is very much useful for taking various operations. Control simplifies supervisions by pointing out the significant deviations from the standards of performance. It keeps the subordinates under check and brings discipline among them. It also enables the expansion of the span of supervision at various levels in the organisation.

Advantages of An Effective System of Control

The following are the advantages of an effective system of control:

  1. Control provides the basis for future action. It will reduce the chances of mistakes being repeated in future by suggesting preventive steps.
  2. Control facilitates decision making. The process of control is complete only when corrective measures are taken. This requires taking the right decision as to what type of follow up action is to be taken.
  3. Control facilitates the decentralisation of authority. As the top executives get the feedback information constantly which helps them to ensure that the decisions taken at the lower levels are consistent with the policies of the enterprise and are in the interest of the enterprise.
  4. Control and planning go hand in hand. Control is the only means to ensure that the plans are being implemented in a real sense. Control points out the shortcomings of not only planning but also other functions of management such as organising, staffing and directing.
  5. The existence of a control system has a positive impact on the behaviour of the employees. They are cautious while performing their duties as they know that they are being observed by their superiors, Control helps in coordination of the activities of the various departments of the enterprise by providing them unity of direction.

Limitations Of Control

A control system may be faced with the following limitations:

  1. World An enterprise cannot control external factors such as government policy, technological changes, fashion changes, etc.
  2. Control is an expensive process because sufficient attention has to be paid to observe the performance of the subordinates. This requires the expenditure of a lot of time and effort.
  3. Control system loses its effectiveness when standards of performance cannot be defined in quantitative terms. For instance, it is very difficult to measure human behaviour and employee morale.
  4. The effectiveness of control mainly depends on the acceptance of subordinates. They may resist control because they may feel that it will reduce or curtail their freedom. Control also loses its significance when it is not possible to fix the accountability of the subordinates.

Scope Of Managerial Control

The scope of managerial control is very wide. It virtually covers all the areas of business, namely, policies, procedures, men, money, machines and equipment, public relations, human relations research and development and so on. Generally, control is exercised by the concentration of key areas of business on which the success of the business depends. It is known as `key-point control. The key points vary from enterprise to enterprise.

Control may be (i) physical, and (ii) financial.

Physical control may be either quantitative or qualitative. They are exercised by personal supervision and checking. Either the entire lot or the sample is compared with the standards. financial control is exercised through budgetary’ control and cost accounting control.

Standards Of Performance

A standard is a criterion against which the performance of the individual is measured. The standard should be based on scientific analysis and should not be subjective in nature. They should possess the following characteristics :

  1. The standard should be capable of achievement with a reasonable amount of effort and time. Standards should concentrate on results and not the procedures.
  2. Standards should not be rigid. They should be capable of being changed whenever the need arises.
  3. As far as possible standard should be expressed in quantitative terms and should be based on the result of work measurement carried with the help of time and motion studies
  4. Standards should be consistent with the overall organisation objectives.
  5. Standards may be expressed in physical terms or monetary terms.
  6. Physical standards are generally applied at the operative levels where the quantity and quality of production are to be controlled.
  7. Monetary standards are expressed in terms of costs and revenues.

Steps In The Control Process

To perform his control functions, a manager follows three basic steps. First of all, he establishes the standards of performance to ensure that performance is in accordance with the plan. After this, the manager will appraise the performance and compare it with a predetermined standard. This step will lead the manager to know whether the performance has come up to the expected standard or if there is any deviation. If the standards are not being met, the manager will take corrective actions which is the final step in controlling as shown in the figure. A detailed discussion of these steps is given below.

The Control Process

1. Establishing Standards

A standard acts as a reference line or basis for the comparison of actual performance. Standards should be set precisely and preferably in quantitative terms. It should be noted that setting standards is also closely linked with and is an integral part of the planning process. Different standards of performance are set up for various operations at the planning stage which serves as the basis of any control system. The establishment of standards in terms of quantity, quality or time is necessary for effective control because it is essential to determine how the performance is going to be appraised. Standards should be accurate, precise, acceptable and workable. Standards should be flexible, i.e., capable of being changed when the circumstances require so.

Different types of standards are used for measuring the performance of different operations. Many standards are of a physical nature, such as a number of units, manhours, etc. and other standards are expressed in monetary terms relating to sales, revenues, expenses; costs and so forth. In addition to these standards, there are also standards of an intangible it is essential to lay down qualitative factors which will determine where the standards are being met or not. AVIAN

2. Appraising Performance

This step involves measuring the actual performance of various individuals, groups or units and then comparing it with the standards which have already been set up at the planning stage. The quantitative measurement should be done in cases where standards have been set in quantitative terms. In other cases, performance should be measured in terms of qualitative factors as in the case of the performance of the industrial relations manager. Comparison of performance with standards is comparatively easier when the standards are expressed in quantitative terms. The process of performance appraisal will reveal the deviations from the standards The appraisal should try to analyse the various deviations and investigate their causes. It is also important to establish a range of deviation beyond which the attention of top management is warranted. Only such cases should be reported up which pin-point exceptional situations. This is what is known as management by exception. To

3. Taking Corrective Action

The final step in the control process is taking corrective actions so that deviations may not occur again and the objectives of the organisation are achieved. This will involve taking certain decisions by the management like replanning or redrawing of goals or standards, reassignment or clarification of duties. It may also necessitate reforming the process of selection and training of workers. thus, the control function may require a change in all other managerial functions. If the standards are found to be defective, they will be modified in light of the observations.

Requirements Of An Effective Control System

Following are the essential pre-requisites of an effective control system:

1. Emphasis On Objective: Before planning a control system, it is essential to know clearly the objectives of the organisation. The control system should aim at accomplishing the organisational objectives.

2. Suitability: Control should be tailored to fit the needs of the organisation. The flow of information concerning current performance should correspond with the organisational structure employed.

3. Flexibility: A good control system must keep pace with the continuously changing pattern of the dynamic business world. It should be adaptable to new developments including the failure of the control system itself.

4. Forward-Looking: The control system should be directed towards the future. It should report the deviation from the plans quickly in order to safeguard the future.

5. Objectivity: Standards of performance should, as far as possible, be objective and specific. They should be based on facts and participation so that control is acceptable and workable.

6. Economical: The systems of control must be worth their costs. They must justify the expenses involved. A control system is justifiable if the saving anticipated from it exceeds the expected costs on its working.

7. Strategic Point Control: Effective and efficient control can be achieved if critical, key or limiting points can be identified and close attention directed to adjustment at those points. This is expected costs on its working.

8. Corrective Actions: Merely pointing of deviations is not sufficient in a good control system. It must lead to taking the corrective action to check deviations from standards through appropriate planning, organising and directing.

Management By Exception

Management by exception is an important principle of organizational control put forward by the classical management writers. This principle holds that only significant deviation ( exceptions) from standards of performance should be brought to the management’s attention. If actual performance is according to the planned performance (i.e., standards already laid down), it need not be brought to the attention of the concerned manager as no follow-up action is necessary. But if there is a major deviation from the standard, it should be reported to the manager. For example, a manager establishes a quality control standard that says that five defects per 100 units produce are permissible. Under the management by exception principle only significant deviations from this standard – six or more defects per 100 units in this case –should be brought to the notice of the manager.

The exception principle has been devised to conserve managerial time, effort and talent and apply these in more important areas. It is a technique of separating important information from not-so-important information. Only such information which is critical for managerial control actions is sent to the management. This facilitates the installing of an effective control system.

Central Government Initiatives For Right To Information

Central Government Initiatives For Right To Information

The need to enact a law on right to information was recognised unanimously by the Chief Ministers Conference on “Effective and Responsive Government” held on 24th May, 1997 at New Delhi. In its 38th: Report relating to Demands for Grants of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs recommended that the Government should take measures for enactment of such a legislation.

In order to make the Government more transparent, and accountable to the public the Government of India appointed a Working Group on Right to Information and Promotion of Open and Transparent Government under the Chairmanship of Shri H.D. Shourie. The Working Group was asked to examine the feasibility and need for either full-fledged Right to Information Act or its introduction in a phased manner to meet the needs of open and responsive Governance and also to examine the framework of rules with reference to the Civil Service (Conduct) Rules and Manual of Office Procedure.

Initiatives at the Central level began in 1997 with the Common Minimum Programme of the government. The Common Minimum Programme of the government, in 1997, specifically mentioned its commitment to introducing a Bill on Freedom of Information. In their 38th Report on demands for grants of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs has strongly recommended that the Ministry may take up the matter urgently to facilitate early enactment of a Right to Information Act. The bureaucracy has also realised the inevitability of openness and transparency. A consensus emerged in the Conference of Chief Secretaries, held in November, 1996, on the need for an early enactment of law on Right to Information.

On January 2nd 1997, The Department of Personnel of the Central Government, set up a working group to examine the feasibility of a full fledged Right to Information Act. The working group was headed by Shri H.D.Shourie as Chairman. While reiterating the need for a right to information act, the group produced a draft bill which took the shape of Freedom of Information Bill 1997. In 2002, the Parliament enacted a Freedom of Information Act (2002). Later, it was observed that there were certain lacunae in the act. The lacunae were sought to be removed by introducing certain changes. After incorporating these changes a new act has been passed called as the Right to Information Act (2005).

The Right To Information Act (2005)

The Right To Information Act seeks to provide every citizen the freudom to secure access to information under control of public authorities, consistent with public interest.

The following are some of the salient provisions of the Act:

  1. All citizens shall have the right to information (subject to the provisions of the act)
  2. Every public authority shall provide information and maintain all records consistent with the operational requirement duly catalogued, indexed, and published
  3. The Central Government shall constitute an Central Information Commission to imitamana he Act. The Central Information Commission shall consist of a Chief Information Commissioner and Central Information Commissioners.
  4. Every state government shall constitute a State Information Commission which shall be similar to the Central Information
  5. Central and State Information Commissions will be independent high level bodies to act as appellate, authorities and vested with the powers of a civil court.
  6. The Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners shall be appointed by the President on the recommendations of a committee consisting of the Prime Minister, the 191110Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha and a Union Cabinet Minister nominated by the Prime Minister.
  7. The persons to be appointed to the Central Information Commission shall be persons of eminence in public life with wide knowledge and experience in law, science and technology, social service, management, journalism, mass media or administration and governance.
  8. The Chief Information Commissioner and the Information Commissioners shall hold office for a term of five years or till they attain the age of 65 years. The salaries and allowances shall be similar to that of the members of the Election Commission. 
  9. The Act imposes obligation on public agencies to disclose the information suo-motu to be reduce requests for an information. Every public authority shall publish the basic information regarding its activities within the time frame stipulated in the act (120 days from the enactment of the act ). This information shall include a directory of its officers and employees, their powers and duties, the procedure followed in the decision-making process etc.
  10. All requests for information shall be made in writing to the concerned information officer. The information officer shall within 30 days (deadline is 48 hours if information concerns life or liberty of a person) provide the information or reject the request for information. In case the request is rejected, the reasons for the rejection shall be communicated.
  11. Their shall be no obligation to give any citizens certain categories of information. Such categories include :
    • information, the disclosure of which would prejudicially affect the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security or economic interests of the State.
    • Information which has been forbidden to be published by any court and tribunal
    • information received in confidence from a foreign government
    • cabinet papers etc.
  12. Information regarding intelligence and security organisations established by the Central Government like the intelligence bureau, research and analysis wing, BSF, CISF, NSG. directorate of revenue intelligence etc. is exempted from the purview of this Act. However, information pertaining to allegations of corruption or violation of human rights by these organizations will not be excluded.
  13. The Central Information Commission or the State Information Commission shall after the end of the each year prepare the report on the implementation of the provisions of this act and forward a copy thereof to the appropriate authority.
  14. The Act overrides the Official Secrets Act, 1923. The information commissions can allow access to the information if public interest outweighs harm to protected persons
  15. It carries strict penalties for failing to provide information or affecting its flow. The erring officials will be subject to departmental proceedings.
  16. The information commission shall fine an official Rs, 250 per day ( subject to a maximum of Rs. 25,000 ) if information is delayed without reasonable cause beyond the stipulated 30 days.
  17. The procedure of appeal in case the information is denied is like this – first appeal to superior of public information officer, second appeal to information commission, and third appeal to a high court.
  18. Information will be free for people below poverty line. For others, fee will be reasonable.

The Right to Information Act 2005 is a major improvement over all the previous efforts. Its enactment is a tribute to the efforts of the civil society organisations

Recomendations Of The Second Administrative Rreforms Commission On The Right To Information Action

The Second Administrative Reforms Commission which was constituted in 2005 under the chairmanship of Shri. Veerappa Moily, has made has made significant recommendations on the Right to Information in its First Report. The report is entitled “Right to Information’ – Master. Key to Good Governance’. Some of the important recommendation are :

  1. The Official Secrets Act 1923 in its current form is antiquated and unsuitable to the emerging needs. This act should be repealed and substituted by a chapter in the National Security Act, containing provisions relating to official secrets.
  2. Suitable amendments should be made in the Indian Evidence Act 1872, the code of civil procedure 1908 and the Code of Criminal Procedure 1973, to facilitate effective dissemination of information.
  3. Documents should be classified as Top secret, Confidential, Secrét, Restricted, etc. Documents classified as Top secret should remain so classified, as long as required, but not exceeding 30 years. Similarly, documents classified as Confidential and Restricted should remains so for a period not exceeding 10 years.
  4. The Central Information Commissioner should establish four regional offices of the Central Information Commissioner with the Commissioner heading each office.
  5. Atleast half of the members the Information Commissions should be drawn from Civil Services background.
  6. A National Coordination Committee ( NCC) may be set up under the Chairpersonship of

    the Chief Information Commissioner with the Nodal Union Ministry (i.e., the Department of Personnel and Training) the State Information Commissions and Representatives of the States as members. This committee will serve as a national platform for effective implementation of the Act.

Communication In Administrative Behavior


Communication (from Latin communicare translates to share or being in relation to one another) is challenging to define in a consistently consistent way. It is typically used to mean a wide range of behaviours or to restrict what is regarded as communication. The systematic conversion of information in to another form for communication is called communication. Peters argues that communication is a universal phenomenon (and all people communicate) and is a specific subject of academic studies. Read on to know more about various definitions of communication, types of communication, features of communication, theories of communication with a perspective from the discipline of public administration.

Organisations are structured to work towards objectives. To reach these objectives the organisation demands that leadership be exercised, people motivated, decisions made, efforts coordinated and operations controlled. Each of these functions involves inter-action between persons and thus involves communication.

Communication is one of the main principles of organisation. It has been considered an effective tool for achieving the goals of the organisation. All organisations small or big, simple or complex, general or technical, require a communication network. Communication plays a vital role, as the functioning of all other important principles of the organisation depends upon its availability and effectiveness. 

The word Communication has been derived from the Latin word communis which can be translated as ‘common’. However, communication incorporates besides commonality the concepts of transfer, meaning and information. Thus, communication can be defined as the process through which two or more persons can exchange ideas and understanding among themselves.

Definitions For Communication

The following are some of the definitions of communication :

  1. Lawrence. A.Appley: “Communication is that process whereby one person makes his ideas and feelings known to another”.
  2. J.D.Millet: “Communication is the shared understanding of a shared purpose”.
  3. Ordway Tead: “Communication is the process whereby one person makes ideas and feelings known to another. The underlying aim of communication is a meeting of minds on common issues”.
  4. Herbert Simon: “Communication is a process through which decisions are transmitted from one member of an organisation to another”. Peter Drucker; “Communication is the ability of the various functional groups within an enterprise to understand each other and each other’s functions and concerns”.
  5. Mohit Bhattacharya: “Communication is the use of words, letters, symbols and some other means to have common information about any object of attention”.
  6. L.A.Allen: “Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another”.

Features of Communication

An analysis of the above definitions reveals the following features of communication.

  • Communication requires at least two people
  • Communication is a process
  • Communication involves both information and understanding
  • Communication occurs at many levels

Process of Communication

Communication has been defined as a process. The process is a concept of changing rather than static existence. The communication process involves the following elements as shown in the figure given below:

Sender–Ideas—Encoding—Channel—Receiver—Decoding———All of it into Feedback

1) Sender :

The person who intends to make contact to pass information, ideas, to other persons is known as the sender.

2) Ideas:

This is the subject matter of communication. This might be opinions, attitudes, feelings, views, suggestions, orders etc.

3) Encoding:

Since the subject matter of communication is abstract and intangible, its transmission requires the use of certain symbols such as words, actions, pictures etc., conversion of the subject matter into these symbols is the process of encoding.

4) Channel:

These symbols are transmitted through certain channels e.g., radio, telephone, air etc. depending upon the situation of the two parties, viz., sender and receiver.

5) Receiver :

The receiver is the person to whom the message is meant for.

6) Decoding :

The receiver converts the symbols received from the sender to give him the meaning of the message.

7) Feedback :

Feedback is necessary to ensure that the receiver has received the message and understands it in the same sense as the sender wants. Further, it also acts as an energising factor, thereby changing the course of action in the communication.

Types Of Communication

Communication can be classified on the following basis :

  1. Classification based on means employed the gross
  2. Classification based on relationships
  3. Classification according to the direction of the communication.

Classification based on means employed:

Based on the means, employed communication can be classified into two categories namely: Oral communication and Written communication.

1. Oral Communication

Oral communication refers to messages sent or received verbally. It is a face to face exchange of ideas through spoken words. Oral communication usually takes place when supervisors give instructions to subordinates or a discussion is held in committee meetings and conferences etc.

Oral communication is found useful where a detailed explanation of the message is required and doubts need to be clarified. It is also preferred when a brief message needs to be transmitted quickly. Supervisors find it necessary to issue oral instructions at the operational level since workers may not able to interpret written instructions correctly.

The main advantages of oral communication are that it facilitates quick transmission, permits detailed explanation and clarification of doubts and that it is particularly useful at the operational level. The major limitation of oral communication is that there is no record of the communication made and hence it cannot be verified afterwards.

2. Written Communication

Written communication refers to messages conveyed in written form. It consists of messages in the form of letters, notes, circulars, notices, memoranda etc.

Written communication is the other side of the language coin’. The message is clear and can be easily understood. Most subordinates understand what they read better than what they hear.

The chief advantages of written communication are that it serves as a record of communication made, it can be expressed in precise terms after due thought, the content of communication can be suited to specific requirements and finally, it is taken more seriously and is binding on parties involved.

The major limitations of written communication are that it is time-consuming, clarifications cannot be given immediately, the response of the receiver may not be instantly available. | Lastly, it may tend to be impersonal.

Types Of Formal Communication

  1. Under the chain network, the information and messages flow only up or down in a hierarchical chain of command. The chain network rigidly follows the formal chain of command in the organisation.
  2. Under the star network, the information and messages flow among the group members through a leader, that is, the central point. In gaur other words, the group members do not communicate with each other directly but rely on the leader to act as the central conduit. It is the most centralised type of formal communication network. it is also known as the wheel network.
  3. Under the circle network, the group members interact with the adjoining members only. In other words, the information and message are transmitted laterally among the group members.
  4. Under the All-channel network, all the members of a group actively communicate with each other. It is the decentralised type of formal communication network. It is also known as the ‘completely connected network.
  5. Under the inverted V network, a sub-ordinate communicates with me his immediate superior as well as second superior ( that is; his superior’s superior ). However, the matters on which information La and message can be sent in the second case are specified,
  6. Under the Y network, two sub-ordinates through the hierarchical chain communicate with a superior. In turn, the superior communicates with two superiors who are above him. This network is less centralized than the star network.

Informal Communication

Communication that takes place independently of the official line of communication is known as informal communication. It consists of an exchange of ideas and information resulting from social interaction among the members of an organisation. Actually, the necessity of informal communication arises among people to satisfy their social needs, which is not possible through formal communication channels. It may involve work-related matters or consist of other matters of mutual interest to the parties.

The flow of informal communication cuts across the official lines of communication. Social interactions may take place between persons holding different positions in different departments. Social groups are thus formed and become the basis of an informal organisation co-existing with the formal organisation.

The network of informal communication is known as the “grape-vine. This is because the origin and direction of the flow of informally conveyed messages cannot be easily traced as in the case of a vineyard. 

From the point of view of members of an organisation, informal communication offers several advantages. It is conducive to the development of friendly relations among employees, it provides a means of useful communication between persons who may not be linked through the chain of command and it helps individuals to communicate on matters which cannot be done through the official channels.

From the management point of view, also there are several important advantages of informal communication. The grapevine serves to fill in the gaps, if any, in the flow of information through the official chain of authority, travels faster than formal communication, facilitates the flow of public opinion and provides emotional relief to the subordinates thereby reducing the tension in labour management relations.

However, the grave-vine or the informal channel of information communication has certain serious limitations. Messages tend to get distorted as different persons pass on the same information with different outlooks and interpretations. The channel being unsystematic cannot be relied upon for regularity and timeliness. The channel can also be misused for Taking confidential information. Lastly, the grapevine may be used to spread rumours which are detrimental to the health of the organisation. 

Types Of Grapevine Networks

  1. Under the single strand network, the information passes from one to one, that is, one member communicates to another member who in turn communicates to another member, and so on.
  2. Under the gossip network, the member communicates nonselectively, that is, a member having information passes it on to everyone he meets. 
  3. Under the probability network, information pass according to the law of probability, that is, one member t u of bris communicates randomly with others who in turn communicate to some
  4. Under the cluster network, the information passes selectively, that is, one member communicates with only those members who he trusts and they, in turn, pass it on to some other selected members. 

Classification based on the direction of messages: Based on the above classification we can identify the four different types of communication i) Downward, ii) Upward, iii) Lateral and iv) Diagonal.

Downward Communication

It refers to the flow of communication from the top en management downwards to the operating level. Thus, communications from superiors to subordinates at different levels of the organisation are known as downward communication. Downward communication from the top management relates to organisational plans and policies. At the middle and lower levels, such communication includes orders and instructions, rules and procedures, etc. These communications may be oral or written.

Upward Communication

Upward communication flows from a subordinate to his superiors in the hierarchy. It may consist of information relating to i) subordinates work performance, ii) problems relating to work, iii) opinions, grievances/suggestions, etc. It may also relate to clarifications needed concerning instructions, procedures and methods of work or statements of personal and family problems. Upward communication not only keeps management informed about the progress of work and the performance of subordinates but also helps managers to take necessary steps to overcome problems relating to work, to settle grievances, clarify instructions, rules, etc., and to advise employees regarding their personal problems.

Lateral Communication

The flow of communication between persons holding positions at the same level of the organisation is known as horizontal or lateral communication. This channel promotes the horizontal flow of messages, enabling departments to work with other departments without having to rigidly follow the downward and upward channel of communication. It promotes coordination and teamwork.

Diagonal Communication

Diagonal communication takes place between people who are neither in the same department nor at the same level of the hierarchy. It cuts across the organisational structure and facilitates the speedy transmission of messages. 

Theories Of Communication

The theories of communication can be classified into four broad categories :

  1. Information theory
  2. Organisational communication theory
  3. Interpersonal communication theory
  4. Non-verbal communication theory

Information Theory

The information theory is a purely scientific approach to the study of communication. It is concerned primarily with the transmission aspects of the communication process. The goal of information theory is to encode messages of statistical nature and to use electrical signals, to transmit messages over a given channel with minimum error.

Organisational Communication Theory

The organisational communication theory views an organisational communication network as analogous to a telephone system. According to the information flows through certain restricted patterns or paths through the entire system. 

Interpersonal Communication Theory

Interpersonal communication theory views communication as a basic method of effecting behavioural change. It incorporates the psychological process (perspective learning and motivation), on one hand, and language on the other.

Non-verbal Communication Theory

At the other extreme of the technically based information, the theory is the non-verbal communication theory. Sometimes called as ‘silent pe language’, non-verbal communication can be defined as `all behaviour expressed 26 consciously or unconsciously, performed in the presence of another or others, and perceived on either consciously or unconsciously. 

Methods and means of communication

Communication essentially involves sending messages from one person to another person. The message may be transmitted either by word of mouth or in writing. Modern organisations use different methods and means to communicate messages. They are:

Personal Contacts

Personal contact in an organisation can be maintained through tot personal messengers, telephone or teleprinter. Mechanical aids such as telephones or have widened the scope of personal contacts within the organisation. They have led also to a speedier and more knowledgeable action.

Formal Correspondence

Formal correspondence is maintained in an organisation through a system of files, memoranda, minutes, etc. These devices facilitate the exchange of views and knowledge on the matters at hand.


All administrative agencies use official forms to secure information from their clients. Based on information secured from his clients an administrator acts. The use of forms is no doubt expensive. However, if they are properly used, they save time, energy and money. They also standardize the administrative process and ensure equality of treatment to the citizen. They can secure these objectives if they are clear and complete.


Another important communications tool is the report. Reports contain much information regarding the progress of work or completed work: The reports should be brief. If they are lengthy, valuable time of productive people will be wasted in their writing and reading.


Most organisations prepare manuals for the use of their employees. Such manuals guide the employees in their work and their organisational life. They provide the employees’ information relating to the general policies, objectives and philosophy of the organisation in which they work. However, the preparation of such manuals is expensive.


The staff meeting is a valuable tool for achieving lateral communication. Staff meetings help the officials to know each other and exchange information. They also build morale and secure coordination. Such meetings give the employees an overall grasp of the problem confronting them.

Essentials Of Communicating

The contents of effective communication are based on the following essentials!

1. Clarity

Communication should be clearly and precisely stated. All the aspects of the communication, such as the purpose behind the decision, the desired response and the time element-should be so expressed as to convey the precise information to the recipient. Clarity depends not only on the simplicity of language but also on the expression of the reason for the decision. Brief and abrupt instructions, like those found in most of our Government offices, are as much faulty, from the clarity point of view, as those coached in pompous, formalized language.

2. Consistency

Communication should be consistent with the expectations of the recipients. It should ordinarily express what the recipient expects by his experience in the agency. Of course, there may be occasions when the management has to bring about changes in the programme or procedure or both of the agencies. But it has to first prepare the recipients to receive the change and only then should it change the form or content of the communication. An unexpected communication will not cause the expected response in the recipients and hence must be avoided.

3. Adequacy

Thirdly, the communication should be adequate. That is, the formation in the communication should be sufficient to stimulate the desired response but at the same time not so much as to over-burden the recipients. Repetitions or too many communications are right self-defeating. Likewise, too little information, provided in the communication, is also not adequate mmunications and it needs to be based upon sound principles of human relationships.

4. Timeliness

Communication should be timely, neither too late nor too early. The purpose of communication is to produce a desired administrative behaviour in the recipient and this cannot be achieved by obsolete information even by information given too much in advance.

Keeping the instructions Upto-date is a lesson which a good administrator should not miss. Feat In the welfare and economic development departments, instructions usually become quickly out-of-date and need to be upto-date from time to time. But when changes are made too at often, then again, the communication becomes self-defeating. Top management must beware of both extremes.

5. Uniformity

Communications should be uniform for all those who are expected to behave ou in the same way. Discrimination in the nature or amount of communication causes heart e burning and jealousy. Moreover, it is a simple law of human nature that uniform reaction. So, if management expects uniform behaviour from its employees, it must provide uniform stimulus.

6. Flexibility

Uniformity should not bring about rigidity in the form or character of communication. An essential of good communication is flexibility. Public administration involves human beings both on the serving side as well as on the receiving side. Local conditions may require variation in administration. Hence sufficient discretion should be allowed to the local officials if people in different areas have to be served according to their needs and circumstances. When the headquarters prescribes too many details and leaves too little discretion to its field officers, then the purpose of communication is defeated. For communication is meant to facilitate the successful implementation of a programme. It is not an end in itself. Acceptability: Lastly, good communication stimulates acceptance. After all, communication is a technique of conveying the decisions of the management to the rank and file. Effective art is that which stimulates a positive response in the recipient. This is done in a variety of ways and leads us to the question of forms or media of communication.

Barriers To Effective Communication

In every organisation, there exists certain barriers to communication that tend to distort the message, thereby retarding the success of the managers in the performance of their managers. Some of the important barriers are : 

1. Semantic barriers:

Semantic barriers refer to the barriers caused by failure to understand the language of the communicator. Faulty translations, badly expressed messages, unclarified assumptions, and technical jargon would fall in this category. Rudolf Flesch refers to the technical jargon (officialese) used by bureaucracy as Gobbledegook.

2. Psychological barriers:

The meaning of the message communicated depends upon the emotional or psychological status of both the parties involved. Some of the important psychological barriers are barriers due to premature evaluation, barriers due to perfunctory attention, and barriers due to lack of mutual trust.

3. Rigid rules and regulations :

Communication through prescribed rules and regulations can also lead to delay. Delay inevitably needs distortion.

4. Status relationships

The hierarchical system places people in superior-subordinate capacities. This relationship operates to block the flow of communication – more particularly or in the upward direction. The greater the differences between the hierarchical positions in the terms of their status, the greater would be the possibility of a communication breakdown. at

5. Attitudinal barriers in the superior

These barriers are inherent in the behaviour of the superior towards his subordinates. Conservative attitudes take the form of withholding of o information, strict adherence to the proper channel, lack of confidence in subordinates, ignoring communication from subordinates etc.

Overcoming Barriers To Communication

The important approaches and methods that can be used to minimise distortion of information are as follows: 

  1.  Effective orientation of employees about organisational objectives, procedures and authority relations.
  2. Developing proper interpersonal relations based on mutual trust and confidence.
  3. Empathetic listening by the higher authorities.
  4. Proper use of language, avoiding technical jargon so that the message is understood properly.
  5. Acting upon the communication that is passed on. If a message is passed without being acted upon, it tends to distort the current and subsequent communications from the superiors.
  6. Proper use of the grape-vine channel.
  7. Developing proper feedback systems.

Right To Information

Right To Information

Democracy is no longer perceived as a form of government where the participation of people in restricted merely, to periodical exercise of the right of franchise, with the citizen retiring into passivity between elections. It has now a more positive and dynamic content with people having say in how and by what rules they would be governed. Meaningful participation of people in major issues affecting their lives is a vital component of the democratic governance and such participation can hardly be effective unless people have information about the way government business is transacted. Democracy means choice and a sound and informed choice is possible onlv. on the basis of knowledge about the various aspects of administration. A citizen can acquire this knowledge only if he has the right to be informed’.

Right to Information means the freedom of people to have access to government information. It implies that the citizens and non-governmental organisations should enjoy a reasonably free access to all files and documents pertaining to the governmental operations, decisions, and performance. In other words, it means openness and transparency in the functioning of government. Thus, it is antithetical to secrecy in public administration.

It is now widely recognised that openness and accessibility of people to information about the government’s functioning is a vital component of democracy. In all free societies, the veil of secrecy that has traditionally shrouded activities of governments is being progressively lifted and this has had a salutary effect on the functioning of governments. In most democratic countries, the right of the people to know is now a well established right created under law. It is a right that has evolved with the maturing of the democratic form of governance.

Needless to say, transparency and openness in functioning have a cleansing effect on the operations of public agencies. As it has been aptly said sunlight is the best disinfectant.

Why Is Right To Information Necessary?

A Right to Information is necessary due to the following reasons:

  1. It makes administration more accountable to people.
  2. It reduces the gap between administration and people,
  3. It makes people aware of administrative decision-making.
  4. It facilities better delivery of goods and services to people by civil servants
  5. It facilities intelligent and constructive criticism of administration
  6. It increases people’s participation in administration
  7. It promotes public interest by discouraging arbitrariness in administrative decision-making.
  8. It reduces the scope for corruption in public administration,
  9. It upholds the democratic ideology by promoting openness and transparency in administration.
  10. It makes administration more responsive to the requirements of people.
  11. It reduces the chance of abuse of authority by the public servants.

Administrative Thinkers And Their Views On Right To Information

The following statements made by eminent administrative thinkers and practitioners highlights the importance of the right to information:

Woodrow Wilson : “I for one have the conviction that government ought to be all outside and not inside. I, for my part, believe that there ought to be no place where everything can be done that everyone does not know about. Everyone knows corruption thrives in secret places and avoids public places”.

James Madison: “People who mean to be their governors must arm themselves with power which knowledge gives. A popular government without popular information or the means of acquiring it is but a prologue to a farce or tragedy or perhaps both”.

Lord Acton : “Nothing is safe that does not show that it can bear discussion and publicity”.

Max Weber : “Bureaucracy naturally welcomes a poorly informed and hence a powerless parliament, at least in so far as ignorance somehow agrees with the bureaucracy’s interests”.

Justice Douglas of USA : “Secrecy in government is fundamentally antidemocratic, perpetuating bureaucratic errors. Open discussion based on full information and debate on public issues are vital to our national health”.

To sum up, in the words of Paras Kuhad, “the secrecy, system is less for safeguarding public or national interest and more for safeguards government’s reputation, burying its mistakes, maximizing its power, shielding its corrupt practices, and manipulating the citizens.”

Ensuring openness in government by providing access to information – the initiative of Great Britain: In Britain, in 1994, the Government’s Code of Practice on Access to Government Information came into force. It applies to all Departments and public sector bodies within the jurisdiction of the Parliamentary Ombudsman. According to the government the aims of the Code are to improve policy-making and the democratic process, to protect the interests of individuals and companies by ensuring that reasons are given for administrative decisions (subject to limited exceptions ) and to support, and extend the public service principles established under the Citizen’s Charter.

Under the Code, Departments are required to do five things: first, to publish the facts and analysis of the facts which the government considers relevant and important in framing major policy proposals and decisions, second, to publish, or otherwise make available, explanatory material on Departments’ dealings with the public.( that includes rules, procedures, internal guidance to officials and similar administrative manuals ) except where publication could prejudice matters ; third, to give reason for administrative decisions; fourth, to publish, in accordance with the Citizen’s Charter, full information about how public services are run, how much they cost, who is in charge and what complaints and redress procedures are available; and furnish, where possible comparable information about what services are being provided, what targets are set, what standards of service are expected and the results achieved; and finally to release, in response to specific requests, information relating to policies, action and decisions and other matters related to Departments’ areas of responsibility.

The Code offers members of the public genuine benefits in terms of obtaining information.

It is to be noted that the movement towards right to access of information is not confined to the developed countries alone. Similar trends have appeared in the developing countries as well. In our neighbourhood, Pakistan recently promulgated a Freedom of Information Ordinance. The South-African Constitution specifically provides the right to information in its Bill of Rights. thus giving it an explicit constitutional status. Malaysia operates an online data base system known as Civil Service Link, through which a person can access information regarding functioning of the public administration. There is thus a broad sweep of change towards openness and transparency across the world.

Right To Information – The Indian Experience

The Constitution of India has no direct provision expressly transferring the right to information to the citizens. However, the Supreme Court has been’ stating since 1975 that the right to information is an intrinsic part of the right to freedom of speech and expression guaranteed under Article’19(1)(a) of the Constitution of India.

In India, various laws and rules restrict the disclosure of official information to the people and thus favours secrecy in administration. Some of them are:

  • Official Secrets Act, 1923
  • Indian Evidence Act, 1872
  • Commission of Enquiry Act, 1952
  • All-India Services (Conduct) Rules, 1954
  • Central Civil Services ( Conduct ) Rules, 1955
  • Railway Services (Conduct ) Rules, 1956.

The Fifth Pay Commission ( 1994-1997) recommended for the abolition of the Official Secrets Act and the introduction of Right to information Act.

As mentioned earlier, universally there have been demands for greater transparency in administration. In our own country, we have not been immune to these winds of change. There have been demands for greater openness and transparency in administration since the advent of independence. The demands became more organised and explicit with a dharna launched by the Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghatan in Rajasthan in 1996. Their motto was the right to know is the right to live. The organisation received support from many quarters and within a short period of time it got converted into a movement called the national campaign for peoples Right to Information. The movement among other things has been demanding the passage of the Right to Information Act at both the Central and State levels.

People’s Participation – Control Over Administration And Development

People’s Participation

I) In Control Over Administration

In a Parliamentary democracy the final power rests with the people. The people have the authority to control the Administration through their representatives. This is chiefly done by.sensitising the elected body, i.e. the parliament at the Union level and the State Legislature at the State level. Citizens exercise control over Administration through parliamentary questions, debates, discussions and various other parliamentary devices.

Control By The Community

Every popular Government is ultimately responsible to the people. Administrative accountability in a democratic set up derives its legitimacy form the people at large. Although adequate controls are exercised on administration by the Legislature, Executive and the Judiciary, yet the importance of 1. Peoples’ Participation in control cannot be undermined.

In a democracy there are various ways and means through which people exercise control over administration.

The formal methods of community control over administration are : Elections, Pressure Groups, Advisory Committees, Referendum, Recall and Public Opinion.

Elections : Election is a suitable means for choosing legislators and Chief-Executives who represent the people in determining public policies. In a Presidential form of government, the very election of the Chief-executive is in the hands of the people themselves. Here, the control of the Chief-executive by the people is direct. In a cabinet form of government, the chief executive is held responsible by the elected representatives of the people. Thus, the control here is indirect. In a democracy, if the government becomes unresponsive to the people’s needs, corrupt and inefficient, it can easily be thrown out of power by means of elections.

Pressure Groups : The pressure groups refer to a section of the public that is organised and active in the pursuits of some special interests which its members joined to promote. Usually it is a group of industrialists and traders with organised commercial interests. These pressure groups bring pressure upon the legislature through “lobbying’ and upon the administration through liaison officers.

The activities of pressure groups are sometimes useful to the Administration. They may convey to the administration the reactions of the people to administrative decisions in time and may thus enable it to adjust its policy and activities so that there may be no opposition from those particular interests.

Advisory Committees : The government appoints various advisory committees, councils or boards at different levels of administration. These councils or committees consists of important citizens and its representatives of a special interests. They function as a liaison agency between the public and officials. They interpret the feelings and interests of the people to Omnicians aims and purposes of the official activities to the public. They also help in secums of the common citizens in the formulation and administration of policy, thus exercising an indirect control.

Referendum : People also exercise control over administration through the device of referendum. It is a direct democratic process in which a proposed law or a draft constitutional amendment is put to popular vote, in order to ascertain the will of the people, as they are the ultimate political sovereign. If they endorse the proposals by a majority it becomes law, and if they reject it then the proposals is dropped. The device of referendum is used in Switzerland.

Recall : Recall is another control device in the hands of the people. It is the device by which people can call back an appointed executive officer before the completion of his normal term if he ceases to enjoy their confidence. This device is used in several states of USA, in Switzerland and in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Vigorous Public Opinion : The most effective means of community control over administration is a vigorous and informed public opinion. Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. If the people are politically lazy and indifferent to what goes on in the administration, they will soon lose their rights and administration will become despotic. The community has to become conscious of its rights and obligations before it can exercise any influence over administration. There should be enlightened public opinion. Decentralization of administration may provide the local community with a better opportunity of intimately understanding and influencing the conduct of public business by the official.

II) In Development Administration

Peoples participation in development administration signifies the direct involvement of people in the process of administering development programmes meant for bringing about socio-economic changes in the society. It embraces the following dimensions.

  • Participation in decision-making
  • Participation in implementation
  • Participation in monitoring and evaluation
  • Participation in sharing benefits

People participate in development administration through various mechanisms like Panchavati Raj institutions, cooperative institutions, mahila mandals, farmers service societies. Youth forma and other voluntary/non-governmental organisations.

People’s participation in development administration is beneficial in various respects:

  1. It provides the administration with a wealth of information on local socio-cultural, economic ecological and technical conditions. This information is highly useful in the Process planning, programming and implementing of development programmes.
  2. It leads to the selection of those projects which are of direct relevance to the people.
  3. It facilities mobilisation of local resources in the form of money, labour, materials and so on which are very essential for the programme’s success.
  4. It acts as a safeguard against the abuse of administrative authority and thus reduces the scope for corruption in the operation of programmes.
  5. It prevents the hijacking of programme benefits by richer and powerful sections due to the involvement of poorer and weaker sections of the society. Thus, it leads to the equitable distribution of benefits.
  6. It makes the local community easily accept the developmental change and more tolerable to + mistakes and failures.
  7.  It reduces the financial burden on government by sustaining the programmes even after the withdrawal of its support. They can be managed by the volunteers or community-based workers.
  8. It enhances the ability and competence of the people to assume responsibility and solve their own problems. It develops a spirit of self-reliance, initiative and leadership among the people.
  9.  It promotes esprit de corps in the community and thus strengthens democracy at the grassroots level.

However, various factors limit the degree and effectiveness of people’s participation in administration, particularly in development administration. They are :

  • Aristocratic and mechanical bureaucracy
  • Unfavourable socio-economic environment like casteism, communalism, poverty, illiteracy and so on.
  • Negative political interference
  • The constraints of time
  • Role of middlemen ( pyravikars) and sycophants
  • Corruption and low standards of conduct-in-administration
  • Faulty administrative procedures
  • Lack of participative culture.

Civil Society At Work – Non Governmental Organizations In India

Civil Society At Work – Non Governmental Organizations In India

India has over 2 million Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The larger purpose of these NGOs is to share their challenges, the way communities are addressing them and opportunities of earning and sharing, with the ultimate goal of developing social partnerships and bridging the gaps. There are forums that offer opportunities for NGOs to share their work and raise funds. The corporates look at possible NGO partnerships for sustainable business development, while the funding agencies look out for more challenging territories. The NRIs seek opportunities to give back something to their country.

Some of the NGOs and their areas of functioning / achievements are given below:

Akanksha Foundation is a non-profit organisation with a mission to impact the lives of less privileged children, enabling them to maximize their potential and change their lives. It works primarily in the field of education, addressing non-formal education through its centres and also formal education by initiating school reform. Over the past 15 years, the organisation has expanded to over 2,600 children in 51 centres in Mumbai and Pune, with an additional 2100 children in 10 schools. A commitment is made to support each child by giving him or her a strong educational foundation, a good time, self-esteem and values, and to help them plan how they can earn a steady livelihood as a step towards improving their standard of living.

Antodaya was formed in 1989 as a non-profit organisation in India as a result of a group of dedicated people who had previously committed themselves to interact with the tribals of Thuamul Rampur block in Kalahandi district of Orissa. Kalahandi is a district with several deficiencies in services and infrastructures. The people of Thuamul Rampur are more exposed to malarial attacks, malnutrition, and hazardous conditions. The skewed land distribution compels the rural poor to face food scarcity for approximately four to five months per year which in turn manifolds the difficulties. Antodaya facilitates the people’s initiatives to eradicate the high incidence of poverty and under development.

Azim Premji Foundation aims at making a tangible impact on identified social issues by working in active partnership with the government and other related sections of the society. Set up with financial resources contributed by Azim Premji, Chairman, Wipro Corporation. it believes that education is the vital element in the development and progress of our nation. Its programmes, initiatives and efforts will revolve around creating effective and scalable models that significantly improve the quality of learning in the school and ensure satisfactory ownership by the community in the management of the school, It dedicates itself to the cause of universalisation of elementary education in India.

Blue Cross of India was established in 1959 to alleviate the suffering of animals. It has grown from small beginnings to become on of India’s largest animal welfare organizations. running active animal welfare, animal rights, and humane education programmes. Its work has received national and internationala recognition. Its office bearers have served on many state and central government committees over the last forty years.

Care India is part of an international relief and development organisation. It confronts the a underlying causes of poverty. Its members save lives, provide economic opportunity and promote self help. With excellence and compassion, they seek to forge a world of hope, tolerance and social justice. Care began work in India in 1950, after an Indo-Care agreement was signed with the Government of India. Today, it helps over 6.5 million individuals in over one lakh villages across ten states. Its projects in India are currently in the sectors of. health, nutrition, and population, girls education, small economic activity development, urban development, tribal empowerment, agriculture and natural resources and emergency preparedness and relief and rehabilitation. In 2000, Care International directly improved the lives of more than 27 million people in 69 countries across Africa, Middle East Asia, the Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean. Tens of millions more benefited indirectly from Care projects addressing the complex problem of poverty.

Centre for Science and Environment (CSE-New Delhi ) does research, investigative, i and educational work in the field of pollution, forest, wildlife, land and water use. The activities are carried out through lectures, field trips, publications, exhibitions on the various issues they take up, meetings and workshops.

Gandhi Peace Foundation – Environment Cell began b functioning at Delhi from June 1979. It was set up mainly to promote the environmental activities of rural development agencies, to disseminate environmental information through the publication of up to date reports on environmental issues, to organize workshops and seminars for environmental experts, policy makers, individuals and organization’s working for environmental issues. Their activities include researching the role of women in community forestry and rural development; conducting studies in soil erosion, water logging, drainage and seepage around select dams, planting fast growing trees. They bring out publications and educational aids on the Chipko Movement, environmental education, dams, etc, audio visuals on Mitti Bachao, the Chipko Movement, deforestation, the Yamuna and the Narmada rivers and traditional rain harvesting techniques.

Hamsafar Trust is a male sexual health agency in Mumbai,, which started as a support sustem for homosexual men and MSM ( male sexual minorities) in the city as the HIV / AIDS crisis started gathering momentum in the early, 90’s. Now it is a multi-faceted organsiation serving various needs of the MSM community with several activities that jould help the community in battling the epidemic. Its main community work is running a drop-in-centre and help-lines for MSM who have no access to health facilities or support systems in Mumbai. The center also conducts workshops as well as lectures, games cultural events, discussions, video shows, and picnics. It s clinic and testing center are with state-of-the-art medical and clinical equipment to diagnose and treat anal, Feria and test for HIV. A trained in-house counselor offers pre and post-test counceling. These facilities are funded by grants from the National AIDS Control (NACO), FHI-USAID, the Elizabeth Taylor Foundation, Greater Involvement for People Living with AIDS (GIPA), etc. In addition, it relies heavily upon donations and the community to sustain its activities.

Indian Red Cross: promotes health and care of the vulnerable people and communities. It is a leading member the largest independent ‘humanitarian organisation in the World, the International Red Cross, and Red Crescent Movement. The Mission of the Indian Red Cross is to inspire, encourage and initiate at all times all forms of humanitarian activities so that human suffering can be minimized and even prevented and thus contribute to creating more congenial climate for peace.

INTACH ( Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage), New Delhi was set up in 1984 to preserve Indian cultural and natural heritage. They undertake water-harvesting projects in urban areas. They have done studies on the restoration of the ecological balance of freshwater lakes and ponds and marine habitats and prepared maps. They also publish books on environmental issues.

Lepra India society was established in 1988 as partner organisation to Lepra UK to serve the needs of people affected by leprosy. It aims to bring healing through appropriate treatment and care as well as partial support for people with ongoing leprosy related problems by working in partnership with communities, national government and other agencies. Its core activities are carried out as per the guidelines of National Leprosy Eradication Programes (NLEP) of the government of India. During a decade long service in the field of leprosy, it recognized the need and importance of extending its services to allied diseases and thus began providing support to programmes in the areas of TB and HIV / AIDS. The organisation promotes research in health sciences, works to improve the awareness levels on health issues and rehabilitates the needy and the disabled.

Narmada Bachao Andalon was set in 1986 under the leadership of Medha Patkar. Its main aims are : to educate those directly affected by large development projects, such as tribals, on the social and environmental impact of such projects; to protest against the construction of dams in the Narmada Valley in general; to struggle towards a right to information and new environmentally sustainable water policy; to help the tribals get a substantial share of the governments development schemes / services and to unable them to undertake development activities themselves. They mainly educate, mobilize and organize residents of the Narmada Valley on human rights and justice, alternative development policies. environmental issues related to big dams in general and the Narmada proiect in particular. They undertake surveys of the affected villages, protest against land and forest issues and government interference in this regard. They are fighting against displacement and disregard of the rights of the people.

Sulabh International is an Indian based social service organisation which works to promote human rights, environmental sanitation, non-conventional sources of energy, waste management and social reforms through education. The organisation counts 50.000 volunteers. It was founded by Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak in the 1970. Innovations include a scavenging-free two-pit pour flush toilet ( Sulabh Shauchalaya), safe and hygienic on-site human waste disposal technology, a new concept of maintenance and construction of payand-use public toilets, popularly known as Sulabh Complexes with bath, laundry and urinal facilities being used by about ten million people every day and generates biogas and biofertiliser produced from excreta-based plants, low maintenance waste water treatment plants of medium capacity for institutions and industries. Other work includes setting up English medium public school in New Delhi and also a network of centres all over the country to train boys and girls from poor families, specially scavengers, so that they can compete in open job market.

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