## Keeping Quiet CBSE Class 12 English Sample Questions

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English

A. “Now we will count to twelve 3
And we will all keep still
For once on the face of earth
Let’s not speak a language”

a) What is the importance of ‘twelve’?
b) What does the poet imply by ‘still’?
c) What does the poet want to mean by not speaking any language?

B. “Let’s stop for one second, 3
And not move our arms so much
It would be an exotic moment without rush, without engines,

a) What is the dual implication of ‘arms’?
b) Which poetic device is used in the above lines?
c) What do you understand by the word ‘exotic’?

C. “Fishermen in the cold sea 4
Would not harm whales
And the man gathering salt
Would look at his hurt hands”.
a) Name a poetic device used in the lines.
b) How would you differentiate the fisherman and the man gathering salt? 1+1
c) How do the words “harm’ and ‘hurt’ bring contradictory ideas?

### 2. Answer the following questions 10×2= 20

1. Acquaint us with the theme of the poem.
2. How does the poet reflect the message of unity?
3. How does the poet reflect universal brother hood and peace?
4. Why does the poet want us to be silent?
5. What does the poet want to convey by the example of earth?
6. How far do you agree the poem to be a reflective poem?
7. How did the poet wage a war against the war mongers?
8. How far do you agree the poem to be a silent attack towards the negativities of mankind?
9. Why does not the poet want his thoughts to be mistaken as inactivity or death?
10. How does the poet criticise ourself centeredness and fear of death?

## Keeping Quiet Poem Analysis CBSE Class 12 English

Poet: Pen Name – Pablo Neruda
Real Name: Neftali Rieardo Reyues Basolto
Born: July 12, 1904

#### Notable Works:

1. A song of despair (2003)
2. Crepus culario (Book of twilights)(1923)
3. Nuevo canto de amor a stalin grads” (1943)
4. Aqrdiente Paciencia (ardent patience) 1985

### Keeping Quiet:

#### A piece of introspection and retrospection

With a sole message to keep ourselves quiet for a moment Pablo Neruda hints at a state of equilibrium where without any movement without any activity we shall get a chance to introspect within ourselves about our views, and activities whether we are right or wrong, true or false. The poet here hints at to introspect to work for unity, peace, and universal brotherhood. He even asks us to retrospect i.e. to look back at our past events and thus evaluate for good. We only get an opportunity to introspect or retrospect when we find ourselves in the state of being quiet.

#### A message for unity, peace, universal brotherhood

The poet has solicited here that we must cease all our activities and be quiet for a moment and come under one umbrella of silence breaking the differences we possess. He gives us a call to break the barriers of enmity, every creed, caste, religion and country and get united to introspect ourselves and despise all negativities and empty for a better world.

#### Not inactivity but ‘super activity

Pablo Neruda urges us to not consider keeping quiet to be total inactivity but keeping quiet is a state we do the most precious act i.e. introspection retrospection and take the right decision. He even urges inactivity not to be confused with death. He rather gives us a call to think above our single-mindedness. We should stop a while and put aside our possessiveness and narrow-minded thoughts.

#### A message of peace and scorn to tyrants and warmongers.

Pablo Neruda with his symbolic implications urged us to unite for good and he even made sarcastic indirect comments to those warmongers, and oppressors and invited them to abscond their negative acts and introspect for better values. He symbolically presented the fishermen to be the oppressors and whales as the innocuous people. Then he presented the salt gatherers representing the lower section of the society who are the victims of several works that damage themselves. The poet gave a call to those warmongers, the people who do green wars, wars with gas, and wars with fire to cease their brutal work and think positive.

### Keeping Quiet Poem Line By Line Analysis

“Now we will count to twelve
and we will all keep still.”

The poet begins with counting twelve urging everyone to be still. He chose ‘twelve for several reasons. ‘Twelve’ hints at the twelve hours of a day which rules our life. ‘Twelve refers to twelve zodiac signs believed to be the controlling forces of our lives. ‘Twelve refers to twelve months of a year. ‘Twelve even may be aimed for preparation for all to be ready to plunge into the state of silence.

#### Poetic devices in use

1. We will = Alliteration (line 1 and 2)
2. Count …………….still – Antithesis

“For once on the face of the earth,
let’s not speak in any language;”

The poet here urges everyone to break the barriers of language and unite with one invisible tune i.e. silence. With the word ‘earth the poet hints at all the humans living devoid of the identity of country creed and caste. Though language is the identity of a country or race, he affirms that humans are more important and the identity of being a human of the earth is a broader realization.

#### Poetic devices in use

Once on – Alliteration

“let’s stop for one second,
and not move our arms so much.”

The poet here urges to stop for one second. Here ‘second’ presents the tiniest part of time calculation. He ushers us to keep ourselves off for at least one second from the negative aspects. Here ‘arms’ is with dual meaning. He apparently indicates ‘arms’ as our hands engaged in several activities and at the same time refers to the weapons we use for destruction.

#### The poetic device in use

Arms – Pun: Meaning one – hands, Meaning two – Arms (weapons)

“It would be an exotic moment
without rush, without engines;
we would all be together
in a sudden strangeness.”

We are always on move. We are all busy accomplishing our work and go on rushing in our lives. The poet even urged to stop engines (referring to industrial works causing harm to the environment). The poet urges us to stop our personal activities and stop engines and unite in one tune i.e. silence. The poet declares silence as exotic because this silence will make us blissful, strange and will bring complete equilibrium.

#### Poetic devices in use

1. Without ……………..without – Repetition
2. We would – Alliteration.
3. Sudden strangeness – Alliteration

“Fisherman in the cold sea
would not harm whales
and the man gathering salt
would look at his hurt hands.”

If we be still, we shall be able to introspect the mistakes and wrongs done. Here fishermen are the representatives
of all kinds of tyrants and killers. The poet wants, them to cease their work and realise their mistakes. The salt gatherer is explained as the representative of poor and lower section of the society. They go up to any level to earn their livelihood and often hurt themselves irreparably.

#### Poetic Devices in use

1. Cold sea – symbolised as polar region
2. His hurt hands – Alliteration

“Those who prepare green wars,
wars with gas, wars with fire,
victories with no survivors,
would put on clean clothes
and walk about with their brothers

The poet here condemns the people with green wars (biological weapon or creators of pollution) and wars with fire (Atomic war). They become victorious but with no survivors left. The poet mocks at the victory of those people who get victory over destruction. The poet asks them to leave the path of destruction and join the group of silence. He urges them to put on white (symbolising – purity and serenity) clothes. And walk with others doing nothing (meaning anything negative and doing self introspection).

#### Poetic devices in use

1. Wars with – Alliteration
2. Wars with – Repetition
3. Clean clothes – Alliteration

“What I want should not be confused
with total inactivity.
Life is what it is about;
I want no truck with death.”

The poet here warns us that his message of silence should not be confused with total inactivity or inertia. He further clears that his message does not have any affinity with death even. His message is aimed at the way of living. He wants us to stop a while and feel the tranquility so that a positive introspection is done.

“If we were not so single-minded
and for once could do nothing,
perhaps a huge silence
of never understanding ourselves
and of threatening ourselves with death.
Perhaps the earth can teach us
and later proves to be alive.”

We human beings are single-minded. We are always busy in achieving our goals, completing personal responsibilities. And we never stop a while to evaluate ourselves and understand ourselves. We never understand that we shall never be able to come out of these desires and achievements. If we could stop a while from this using we would have understood the real purpose of our lives and ourselves. Rather we go on with the fear of
death calculation how much of our dreams and wishes will be achieved.

#### Poetic devises in use

We were – Alliteration

“Now I’ll count up to twelve
and you keep quiet and I will go.”

In conclusion, the poet taught us through the example of the earth which at one season may look as if dead but comes back with life in another season. Likewise, our life will also bear certain meaning when we walk on the right path i.e. introspecting in silence. In the last two lines, the poet leaves us to introspect as if he himself has gone through the same.

## An Elementary Classroom In A Slum Class 12 English Author And Poem Analysis

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English

Poet: Stephen Spender
Born: 28 February 1909, London, England.
Died: 16 July 1995, London, England.
He was a poet, novelist, and essayist.

#### Notable Works:

1. The God that failed (1949)
2. Trial of judge (1938)
3. The Temple (1928)
4. The backward son (1940)

#### Source Of Poem

‘An elementary classroom in a slum, a perfect social satire is taken from the book “The God That Failed”. It was first published in 1949.

### Themes Of Poem

Stephen spender exposed the very inappropriateness of a school in a slum. In a slum where the children live in the filthy environment; where they do not get food to assuage the fire of hunger; where they suffer from malnutrition; where their childhood is at stake; where life is like of a savage animal, educations seems to prove futile. He strongly hints at all-round development of the slum people. A child must be free from hunger, malnutrition, and all other adversities simultaneously.

#### 2. Poverty And Filthy Life:

In his poem, Stephen spender showed how socially, economically and politically deprived children become a symbol of inequality. These children suffer the pang of poverty. Their innocuo0us children are malnutrition, sick, and devoid of child-like tenets. The words like ‘fog’ filthy’ emanate that poverty along with the filthy atmosphere is their ultimate fats.

#### 3. The Picture Of Inequality

Since time immemorial inequality is a common tenet in society. But here Stephen Spender has reflected inequality in a distinct way. As if the deprived and exploited ones are living in a different world, a world devoid of peace, solace, optimism, and a bright future. Here lies ‘fog’, ‘slag heap’, and it is similar to doom. There is no reference to the slums in the maps. The maps are meant for the rich. The poet here sarcastically exposes the dirty side of our society.

Stephen Spender in the last stanza desires a better world for the slum children with all optimism. He gives a call to the governors, doctors, teachers to impart their duty as sensible and responsible citizens. Whatever puts obstacles are in their way to their complete freedom must be broken and they should give the atmosphere to merge with the mainstream of society. They must be taken out from the filthy slum and must be allowed to behold the clear blue sky, fresh sea beaches, and green fields. They should be given the opportunity to learn and be wise. They must have the freedom of expression which will lead them towards and complete freedom.

### Structure Of The Poem

The total poem is of 32 lines and divided into 4 equal stanzas of 8 lines. The poem does not have any particular rhyme scheme and is written in free verse. We find extensive use of alliteration, personification, Inversion, enjambment, symbolism and imagery.

### Stanza Wise Explanation

#### Stanza – 1

The children living in the slums are far away from the free-blowing of the wind. They are referred to as rootless and considered weeds. This reflects how less important and out of the world these slum children are. They have pale faces on which uncared hair locks are visible. In the first two lines, the poet shows a painful and defective picture of the slum children. Then the poet talks about a tall girl. By the girl, the poet meant that she is older than
other learners of the school. Her head is stooping which shows she is out of the proper association and another way she has already been affected by the harsh reality of stern life with poverty. Then the poet talks about a boy who is very thin (paper seeming). His being thin talks about malnutrition. He is having bulging eyes like the rats signifying his ill physical state. The boy is born with twisted bones which indicates the disease of knots that he inherited from his father. Then the poet talks about a sweet and young boy who is sitting at the back of the classroom. He is ‘sweet and young’ signifying that still the boy is devoid of the harsh and rude touch of the filthy slum. The words ‘dim class’ hints at a classroom that is dull and uninteresting. A child’s innocuousness can be found in him when we find him dreaming about the squirrel.

#### Poetic Devices In Use:

1. Alliteration – ‘far far from’, ‘The tall’ and ‘than this’
2. Oxymoron – ‘rootless weeds’
3. Transferred epithet– “ …at back of the dim class.”
4. Simile – “ like rootless weeds, the hair torn round their pallor, “
5. Enjambment – “ …The stunted, unlucky heir of twisted bones ……..”

#### Stanza – 2

In the second stanza, the poet talks about the unpleasant walls of the classroom. It reflects a classroom without attractions. On the wall, there is the picture of irrelevant Shakespeare. In the picture, we can visualize big buildings of the civilized world and the picture shows a cloudless town. It distinctly reflects the difference between foggy and filthy slums to those of beautiful clean cities. The picture shows us buildings having bells and flowery Tyrolese valley of Austria. Then the poet talks of the map makers who on their will did bring changes to the map they gave the world the shape and it was done on their will. But for the children their world is not the world shown on the map, rather their world is what they see out of the school classroom window. Their world, the small arena of the slum is painted with fog symbolizing the dark future, their word finishes in a narrow street which is almost covered with greyish, under, and unhealthy sky. Their world is far from natural places like rivers, capes, and stars of words.

#### Poetic Devices in use

1. Alliteration – ‘street sealed’. ‘far far from’,
2. Repetition – ‘Awarding the world its world’.
3. Enjambment – “….And yer5 for these children ………….”

#### Stanza – 3

There is no relevance of the picture of Shakespeare to these slum children. And the map delineating the world is of no good use to them. When the world map shows ships, the sun, and talks of love, they get leveled and get tempted to steal. These things have no importance because their world changes unknowingly from cramped holes to fog to endless dark future. This shows their lives are meant for nothingness. The children of the slums are found with bonny and skinny physic to wonder about the heaps of waste. They wear spectacles which seem to be the bottle bits on stones. They do not have any holiday from their hellish slums. Their whole day and whole life revolve around the filthy foggy slum. These slums are like duly blots on the map of the wealthy and so-called civilized people.

#### Poetic Devices in use

1. Alliteration – ‘Surely, Shakespeare’, ‘tempting them, ‘ fog’, their time’
2. Simile – ‘so blot their maps with slums as big as doom.”

#### Stanza – 4

This stanza acquaints us with an optimistic note the poet here urges the governors, inspectors, and visitors to come for war and eradicate all the hindrances which put these innocent children in the filthy and dark world of slums. The poet urges them to make the map their window and to abolish ‘there window’s’ which turn their lives like shut catacombs. This situation must be changed; the chain which abounds them in this life must be broken. We must lead them in a world where they will behold green fields, where they will walk free on blue waves falling on golden sands. The poet also urges their freedom of speech and they must be introduced to the world of knowledge and wisdom. The poet ends with the line where he states that they make history who are inspired by the strength and noble features of the sun.

#### Poetic Devices in use

1. Anaphora – Run azure Run naked
2. Smile – “……..There windows That shut upon their lives like catacombs”
3. Alliteration – ‘till they’, ‘the town’, ‘their tongues’.
4. Enjambment – “……….and let their tongues Run naked ………….”

## My Mother at Sixty-six Class 12 English Poet Kamala Das

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English

Poet:  Kamala Das (known as Kamala Surayya)
Born: 31 March, 1934 Madras, British India.
Died: 31 May, 2009 Pune, India

She used Madhabikkuty, as her pen name.
She was known as poet and short story writer

### Kamala Das Notable Works:

1. My story (1976)
2. Yaa Allah (2011)
3. Alphabet of lust (1977)
4. My mother at sixty- six (1999)

### Awards

• Asian poetry Prize (1998)
• Kerala Sahitya Academy Award (1969)

### About The Poem – My Mother at Sixty-six

“My mother at sixty-six” was published in 1999. The poem is written in free verse. The poem is a representation of the melancholic feeling of the poet about her mother’s superannuation and approaching end. Suddenly she discovers the inevitable end of humans in her mother.

#### The Inevitable End

Every living entity in this world is subject to decay decline and death. When the poet was on her way to the airport with her mother, she realized this very truth. She could discover the signs of her mother approaching the end. Her ashen , pale, wan, and corpse-like reflected that the ultimate time is near.

#### Escaping The Truth

When the poet suddenly discovered her mother’s apparently corpse like body marked with her old age, pale and ashen look, she got to realize the unbearable truth. She did not want to lose her mother. She tried not to think about this may more and to deviate herself looked outside to behold the optimistic and young trees and spilling children.

#### Fear Of Childhood

The poet has here touched us delicately when she refers to the fear of childhood. The fear of losing her mother was aroused again when she glimpsed the impending disaster. She tried to hide her concern and fear at last and tried to make her mother happy by smiling and waving her hand.

### Some Important Questions

1. Establish the poem “My Mother at Sixty Six” to be melancholic one.
2. ‘Every living being meets the horns of death’. How is this depicted in the poem?
3. How was the mother looking when the poet took her in her car?
4. What does the last line imply?
5. What do the Children and young sprinting trees signify?

## The Rattrap Class 12 English Flamingo Sample Questions

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English

#### A. Answer the following questions in very short 5×1=5

1. What did the old man prepare for supper?
2. Which card game did the rattrap peddler and the old man play?
3. After how much time did the peddler come to the old man’s house?
4. Where did the canal lead to?
5. In which month did the incident take place?
6. Whom did the ironmaster mistake the rattrap peddler to be?
7. What was the name of the wife of the ironmaster?

1. How did the rattrap peddler manage his livelihood?
2. What was the philosophy of life connected to the rattrap by the rattrap?
3. How did the rattrap peddler loot the man near the highway?
4. How did the peddler reach the forge and how was he mistaken?
5. How did the peddler reach the manor house?
6. How did the ironmaster react when the truth was exposed and how did the peddler answer back?
7. How was the life of the peddler during Christmas in the manor house?
8. Comment on the ending of the story.

#### C. Answer the following questions in about 200 words. (any two) 6×2=12

1. Establish “The Rattrap” to be a didactic one.
2. Discuss how Edla become the source of inspiration to come out of the trap he was in.
3. Justify the title of “The Rattrap”.

## Deep Water Class 12 English Author William Douglas

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English

Author: William Douglas (1898 – 1980)
Born: 16 October 1898, Minnesota
Died: 19 January, Minnesota

William Douglas was the youngest appointed justice of the supreme court of the United States

### Deep Water – A Near-Death Experience

The author presents a very pitiable helpless state when he encountered death at closed doors. When he was thrown in the V.M.C.A. pool by a big bruiser of a boy, he could envisage his ultimate fight. Though he was in the utmost state of tepidity he did not look his senses. He planned that when he would reach the bottom of the pool he would jump with all his might and come on the surface and then paddle to the edge of the pool. But in the meantime, he felt as if his heart would burst. He tried but he could not reach the surface of the water. He could not. He swallowed water and felt paralysed. He tried again but he felt dizzy and slowly he felt blackness and everything turned peaceful. At last, he was saved.

### Deep Water – An Embodiment Of Diligence

The author with strong deter4mination vowed to overcome water. He had a lot of hindrances to do so. He got his fear coming back every now and then. He took the aid of an instructor who taught him in steps and brought back his confidence and courage. He tried everywhere he could to overcome his fear. He practiced hundreds of times every move and fought with his hydrophobia.

### Deep Water –  Teaches To Face The Fear

There is no iota of doubt that to win over the fear, the best method is to face the fear and fight with it. ‘Deep water’ strongly rings that idea. The author did not get away from his fear. Though water had been the reason for his death experience he decided to face it and ultimately won over it.

## CBSE Class 12 English The Last Lesson Sample Questions

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English

#### Answer the following questions in very short 5×1=5

1. Name the blacksmith who talked with Franz while going to school.
2. What was there under the arm of Mr. Hamel?
3. What was the colour of the coat of Mr. Hamel?
4. Name the river mentioned in the text.
5. Which church services are mentioned in the text?

1. Acquaint us with the background of the story.
2. Tell us about the bulletin board.
4. What had been the surprise in the classroom people?
5. How did Mr. Hamel dress and why?
6. How was Franz in his task in the class? How did he feel?
7. How did Mr. Franz blame his parents and himself?
8. How was the imparting of the lesson that day?
9. Comment on the ending of the story.

#### Answer the following questions in about 200 words. (any two) 6×2=12

1. How is “language “put in this story?
2. How does the story criticize war?
3. Evaluate Mr. Hamel as a teacher and Franz as a student.
4. How does the story create a feeling of sympathy and melancholy?

## About The Author – The Last Lesson CBSE Class 12 English

Author – Alphonse Daude

Born – May 13, 1840, France

Died –  December 16, 1897, France

He was a famous Novelist, short story writer, playwright, and poet.

Famous Works:

• Le petit chose
• Les Amoureuses
• Letters de Tarascon
• Contes du Lundi

### About The Story – The last lesson – Historical Background.

The story is set in the days of Franco – Prussian war. This war continued from 19 July 1870 to May 10, 1871. In this war, Germans were victorious which led them to the “Treaty of Frankfurt”. One of the main tenets of the treaty was the annexation of Alsace and Lorraine. This war was the revenge of the Germans against the French as Napoleon-I had smashed the German provinces during early Napoleonic wars.

### The last lesson – Alsace and Lorraine

On 10th May 1971 by the Treaty of Frankfurt’ 93% of Alsace and 26% of Lorraine had been annexed. Until October 1, 1872, the residents of Alsace and Lorraine were given the option to choose between emigrating to France or staying in Alsace – Lorraine. Around one lakh residents had emigrated to France.

### The last lesson – Language, the Identity of A nation

A nation is known by its language. They take pride in their language. Here the story “The Last Lesson” acquaints us with the innate feelings of the inhabitants of Alsace and Lorraine who are ordered to stop learning French in the schools and adopt German instead. The school teacher M. Hamel makes us feel the very painful last day of school. Little Franz and others felt to the core that they were dominated and as Frenchmen, their identity was in danger. With a morose heart the teacher, the students, and the inhabitants lamented as their mother tongue French was banned by Germany.

### Some Important Lines Explained

1. “For the last two years all our bad news had come from there – the lost battles, the draft, the orders of the commanding officer – and I thought to myself, without stopping, “What can be the matter now?”

The bulletin – board had been the source of all of their negative news. Whenever they got a news bulletin, they would reckon that to be a misfortune for them. They received the news of the defeat of their Army in the Franco – Prussian war; the news the “The Treaty of Frankfurt”; the news of the annexation of Alsace and Lorraine and the news of the death bell for the French language.

2. “Don’t go so fast, dub; you’ll get to your school in plenty of time”

Watcher, the blacksmith made this scorning remark to Franz. Ironically he indicates that his going to school is futile. The bulletin board has brought news for them. Franz’s hurrying towards school is going to be meaningless as the school will lose the relevance to inhabitants of Alsace and Lorraine.

3. “What a thunder cap these words were to me!”

At the news of the last lesson, little Franz had become positively happy for he had been feeling blah towards studies. His getting rid of the studies made him mirthful. But he could not assess that what that meant. Almost immediately he envisaged the loss of his studies.

4. “Vive La France… School is dismissed – you may go.”

This concluding sentence is most emotional extending ourselves to feel the very pang of the French people of Alsace and Lorraine as they are ordered to change their heart, i.e. their mother tongue. Despite being ruled by the Germans, all the villagers and M. Hamel are true patriots when they utter “Vive La France” i.e. long live France. The order of the dismissal of the school implies the final dismissal for the school and learning.

### Some Important Questions

1. Bring out the symbolic importance of the bulletin board.
2. How the language of the country is is the identity.
3. Acquaint us with the background of the story.
4. What difference did Franz find in the atmosphere of the school?
5. What changes did Franz find in the classroom?
6. What was Franz’s reaction when he heard that it was the last day of school?
7. How was the performance of Franz on the last day?
8. Whom did M. Hamel criticize for the failure of little Franz in acquiring the lessons ?
9. “……….we must guard it, because when a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison”

#### Explain the line.

1. How did M. Hamel teach on the last day and how did Franz learn on the last day?
2. “Will they make them sing in German, even pigeons?” – Explain.
3. How did the last lesson end?

## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 2 Lost Spring

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 2 Lost Spring is a detailed account of what you will learn in Lost Spring Chapter 2 Class 12 English. To successfully pass the CBSE Class 12 English exam and get an excellent grade on your report card at the end of it all you need a thorough understanding and comprehension of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 2 Lost Spring which we have made sure covers everything important!

## Lost Spring NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 2

### Lost Spring NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers

Lost Spring Think as you read

Question 1.
What is Saheb looking for in the garbage dumps? Where is he and where has he come from?
Saheb is looking for some silver coins or currency notes. It is as valuable as gold for him. He is in Seemapuri (Delhi) and had come from Bangladesh.

Question 2.
What explanation does the author offer for the children not wearing footwear?
The author argues that the children are poor, so they could not afford to have any shoes.

Question 3.
Is Saheb happy working at the tea stall? How do you know?
Saheb is not happy working at the tea stall. He is no longer his master and that relaxed look on his face is also lost. The steel canister seems heavier than the plastic bag that he would carry so lightly over his shoulder. It was because the bag was his and the canister belonged to the man who owned the tea stall. He had lost his independence and he was bound by time to lead a life of servility.

Question 4.
What makes the city of Firozabad famous?
Firozabad is the centre of India’s glass-blowing industry.

Question 5.
Mention the hazards of working in the glass bangle industry.
There are a lot of hazards of working in a bangle factory. They are badly lit and have bad ventilation. It requires continuous bending over the furnace. All these lead to a lot of health issues. Men have to work in dingy cells without air and light. As a result, they lose the brightness of their eyes and go blind with the dust from polishing the glass bangles.

Question 6.
How is Mukesh’s attitude to his situation different from that of his family?
Answer: Mukesh tries to break away from the family tradition of making bangles. This was more like a rebellion since no one had ever tried to move away from this trade. Mukesh wanted to carve a niche for himself. He wanted to be different. He wanted to become a car mechanic.

Lost Spring Understanding the Text

Question 1.
What could be some of the reasons for the migration of people from villages to cities?
Their fields and homes could have been swept away by frequent floods because of which they had nothing to eat. Thus, they had to leave their homes and come to the cities.

Question 2.
Would you agree that promises made to poor children are rarely kept? Why do you think this happens in the incidents narrated in the text?
Promises made to the poor are rarely kept. In the text, when the author meets Saheb, she encourages him to study and offers to open a school. Her unfulfilled promise disappoints Saheb.

Question 3.
What forces conspire to keep the workers in the bangle industry of Firozabad in poverty?
They include sahukars, middlemen, policemen, bureaucrats and politicians who exploit them.

Lost Spring Talking about the text

Question 1.
How, in your opinion, can Mukesh realise his dream?
Mukesh’s aim in life was to become a motor mechanic. Yes, it indeed was possible to realise his dreams through his hard work and determination. He walked all the way to a garage, far away from his house, to learn the nuances of being a motor mechanic. He can realise his dream by working at some garage and learning the job of a motor mechanic.

Question 2.
Mention the hazards of working in the glass bangles industry.
The glass bangles industry has many health hazards. It usually employs small children. It is illegal to employ very young children. They work in the glass furnaces with high temperatures. The dingy cells, where they work are without air and light. They weld pieces of coloured glass into circles of bangles. Their eyes are more adjusted to the dark. Therefore, they often end up losing their eyesight before they become adults.

Question 3.
Why should child labour be eliminated and how?
Child labour is an inhuman practice. It should be eliminated by educating the children and banning it too. The parents who send their children for cheap labour, must be made aware of the fact that it is a crime to make little children work.

### Lost Spring Extra Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Why does the author say that the bangle-makers are caught in a vicious web?
The author says that bangle-makers are caught in a vicious web because they are not able to form co-operative societies for their betterment and are forced to follow and obey sahukars and policemen.

Question 2.
Who is Mukesh? What is his dream?
Mukesh is the son of a poor bangle-maker of Firozabad. He dreams of becoming a motor mechanic and a car driver. In fact, he insists on becoming his own master.

Question 3.
Why could the bangle-makers not organise themselves into a co-operative?
Most of the young bangle-makers have fallen into the trap of the middlemen. They are also afraid of the police. They know that the police will haul them up, beat them and drag to jail for doing something illegal. There is no leader among them to help them see things differently.

Question 4.
What does the writer mean when she says, ‘Saheb is no longer his own master’?
The writer meant that till Saheb was a ragpicker, he was a carefree boy, who would work, have time for himself and enjoy the work he was doing. But from the time he had started working in a stall with others supervising his work, he changed. He had to become responsible and could not be free like earlier. He was no longer his own master.

Question 5.
What does the title ‘Lost Spring’ convey?
Spring is associated with childhood. Like spring, a child blooms in childhood. However, abject poverty and thoughtless traditions result in the loss of child-like innocence and much needed education. Millions of children like Saheb and Mukesh lose the spring in their lives because they are compelled to do hazardous work to provide a living for their family and themselves. Thus, the title brings out the dejected life of the child labourers and their deprivation of the blessings of childhood.

Question 6.
What is the condition of the children working in the glass furnaces of Firozabad?
More than 20,000 children illegally work in the glass blowing factories in Firozabad. They work around furnaces in high temperature to weld glasses. They work in dingy cells without light and air. Their eyes are adjusted more to the dark than to the light outside. They work all day long. Many of them lose their eyesight before they become adults.

Question 7.
Why don’t the younger ones of the bangle-makers do anything else?
The years of mind numbing and hard toil kill the desire of making new attempts to improve their condition and the ability to dream. In Firozabad, doing any other work needs rebellion, strong will and the determination of the bangle-makers to do something go along with the family tradition because of lack of awareness, education and opportunities.

Question 8.
What did garbage mean to the children of Seemapuri and to their parents?
For elders of Seemapuri, since they are ragpickers, garbage is a means of survival. However, to the children of Seemapuri, garbage is wrapped in wonder. Sometimes, they expect to find a coin, which raises their hope of finding more.

Question 9.
What does Saheb look for in the garbage dumps?
Saheb looks for some silver coins or currency note. It is as valuable as gold for him.

Question 10.
“It is his karam, his destiny”. What is Mukesh’s family’s attitude towards their situation?
Mukesh’s grandmother regards it as their destiny. She says that they were born in the caste of bangle-makers and have seen nothing but bangles in their lives. Mukesh’s family had mutely accepted it as their destiny and had stopped taking any initiative to change their fate.

Question 11.
How is the bangle industry of Firozabad a curse for the bangle-makers?
Men have to work in dingy cells without air and light. As a result, they lose the brightness of their eyes and go blind with the dust from polishing the glass bangles. They are also exploited by moneylenders, police, bureaucrats and politicians. They live in a state of intense poverty and have to go without food for days. Therefore, it is a curse for them.

Question 12.
Describe the irony in Saheb’s name.
Saheb’s full name is Saheb-e-Alam which means ‘Lord of the Universe’. But in stark contrast to his name, Saheb is poverty-stricken, barefoot, homeless ragpicker who scrounges the garbage dumps of Delhi for his livelihood. His name is in total contrast to his very existence and is thus, ironical.

Question 13.
What does the reference to chappals in ‘Lost Spring’ tell us about the economic condition of the ragpickers?
The ragpickers were extremely poor. They did not have any money to buy chappals. They were poor and impoverished. They lived a hand-to-mouth existence. They were exploited and had no other work to do. They did not have a house to live in too.

Question 14.
“Listening to them, I see two distinct worlds…” In the context of Mukesh, the bangle- maker’s son, which two worlds is Anees Jung referring to?
The author, Anees Jung very distinctly sees the two worlds of the bangle-makers and the makers of the society. On one side exists the poverty-stricken families burdened by the stigma of caste, illiteracy, pall and gloom, while on the other side, there is the sahukars, middlemen, policemen, keepers of law and the bureaucrats, who ensure that these poor people continue to be entangled in the vicious circle of poverty. Both these worlds are in stark contrast to each other.

Question 15.
Why did Saheb’s parents leave Dhaka and migrate to India?
Saheb’s parents belonged to Dhaka in Bangladesh, where they lived amidst green fields. They and the other ragpickers left their homes many years ago and migrated to India in search of a livelihood, as their homes and fields were destroyed in storms. This forced them to come to India, where they settled in the slums of Seemapuri.

Question 16.
What job did Saheb take up? Was he happy?
Saheb took up work at a tea stall, where he had to perform several odd jobs, including
getting milk from the milk booth. He was not happy, as he had lost his independence. Though he earned ? 800 and got all his meals free, he was no longer his own master.

Question 17.
Whom does Anees Jung blame for the sorry plight of the bangle-makers?
Anees Jung blames the middlemen, the policemen, the lawmakers, the bureaucrats and the politicians for the sorry plight of the bangle-makers. These people conspire and exploit the poor bangle-makers. They pay them meagre wages, do not let them form co-operatives, and compel their children to join the same trade at an early age.

Question 18.
What was Mukesh’s dream? In your opinion, did he achieve his dream?
Mukesh’s dream was to become a motor-mechanic. It is no doubt difficult for Mukesh to achieve his dream, as he is torn between his desires and his family tradition, which he cannot escape. Besides, he has to face a number of obstacles in the form of sahukars, middlemen, bureaucrats, lawmakers, politicians, etc. However, his will to work hard, and his strong determination could make him achieve his dream.

Question 19.
In spite of despair and disease pervading the lives of the slum children, they are not devoid of hope. How far do you agree?
In spite of growing up amidst despair and disease, children who live in the slum have the desire to achieve something big in life like Mukesh. This shows that they are not devoid of hope. Saheb, a ragpicker, is eager to go to a school and learn. Mukesh, who , works in dark, dingy cells, dreams of becoming a motor mechanic, which is very much against his family tradition.

Question 20.
Was Saheb happy working at the tea stall?
No, Saheb was not happy working at the tea stall. He had lost his carefree look. He was less contented as he was burdened with responsibilities. The rag-picking plastic bag though heavy, seemed lighter than the steel canister.

Question 1.
Grinding poverty and tradition condemn the children of ragpickers or bangle-makers to a life of exploitation. Such children are deprived of all opportunities in life. Mukesh, who opts out of the existing profession of his forefathers by resolving to start a new job of a motor mechanic symbolises the modem youth. What lesson do we learn from Mukesh’s example?
It is not only the grinding poverty but also the tradition that condemns the children of ragpickers or bangle-makers to live a life of exploitation. On one side is the family, trapped in poverty and burdened by stigma of the caste they are born in, on the other side, they are trapped in the vicious circle of inhuman sahukars, the middlemen, the policemen, the so-called keepers of law, the bureaucrats and the politicians. All of them have created a situation from which there is no way out.

The trapped do not have the guts to break out of it. Mukesh, in fact, is like a ray of hope with his dreams of becoming a motor mechanic. He wants to opt out of the existing profession of his forefathers. He has resolved to start a new job as a motor mechanic. The long distance to the garage where he will learn the work of a motor mechanic does not deter him. He is prepared to walk. But he is firm. He symbolises the youth of his clan. If this persists, the day is not far when a new generation will bring brightness and hope to the dark and dingy homes of these poverty-ridden workers.

Question 2.
How is Mukesh more ambitious in life than Saheb? Give a reasoned answer.
OR
How is Mukesh’s attitude towards his situation different from that of Saheb? Why?
Mukesh is definitely more ambitious than Saheb. Unlike most of his friends in Firozabad, Mukesh did not want to follow the profession of making bangles. No one else could dare to think of breaking the conventional style of living. Mukesh dreamt of becoming a motor mechanic. He had already decided to go to a garage and learn about cars. Though the garage was a long way from his home, he was prepared to walk that distance. He insisted on becoming his own master.

Saheb, on the other hand, had sacrificed his freedom as a ragpicker to take up a salaried job that would pay him 800 rupees and give him all his meals. Now, he was no longer his own master. He had lost his carefree look (which he had when he was a ragpicker). The can that he carried seemed heavier than the bag he carried as a ragpicker, for this job was not to his liking.

Question 3.
The barefoot ragpickers of Seemapuri live on the periphery of Delhi, yet metaphorically speaking, miles away from it. Comment
The barefoot ragpickers of Seemapuri live on the periphery of Delhi, yet metaphorically speaking, miles away from it, sums up the true condition of the ragpickers of Seemapuri. Seemapuri is a slum area, which houses approximately 10,000 ragpickers. They live in mud houses with roofs of tin and tarpaulin. There is no sewage, drainage or running water. They came here from Bangladesh in 1971 and have been living here ever since without any identity of their own or permits, but they have ration cards and their names figure in the voter’s list.

Women wear tattered saris. Survival in Seemapuri means ragpicking. This is an example of the gross negligence and apathy of the Delhi Government. It has failed to do anything for them. Though Seemapuri is so close to Delhi, almost on its periphery, but the glitter and glamour advantages like education,proper facilities for living a clean and decent life are beyond the reach of these slum dwellers of Seemapuri, which is so close to Delhi, yet so far.

Question 4.
The bangle-makers of Firozabad make beautiful bangles and make everyone happy, but they live and die in squalor. Elaborate.
The bangle-makers of Firozabad live in utter poverty, generation after generation. They believe that they are the people who are destined to work as glass bangle- makers. They make beautiful bangles for women, but they live in the dark. The workers have to look at the hot bright furnaces while polishing bangles. While welding pieces of coloured glass into bangles, they have no other option but are forced to sit near flickering lamps. Hence, they are forced to stay in dark room huts and their eyes are not in a position to see the daylight outside. They become blind quite early in life. They are in a vicious circle tossed around by moneylenders, middlemen and politicians. Instead of helping them, the law enforcing authorities only prey on them.

Question 5.
Give a brief account of the life and activities of people like Saheb-e-Alam settled in Seemapuri.
Saheb is a poor boy belonging to a refugee family from Bangladesh. His family came to Delhi and settled in the trans-Yamuna area called Seemapuri. Here, they have no work to do. They pick garbage for their livelihood. Saheb also, like others, looks and searches the garbage dumps for some coins.

They leave their houses in the morning with a bag on their back to collect something from the garbage. They remain barefoot. It has become their habit not to wear any footwear. The families like Saheb’s left behind a life of abject poverty in flood-hit areas of Bangladesh and came to India. They move to big cities in the hope of getting some work. In the absence of work, they begin ragpicking.

Question 6.
‘Lost Spring’ explains the grinding poverty and traditions that condemn thousands of people to a life of abject poverty. Do you agree? Why/Why not?
Yes, I fully agree that ‘Lost Spring’ explains abject poverty. Saheb-e-Alam came along with his family from Bangladesh to Delhi. His family settled on the banks of the Yamuna river. Here, they have no work to do and no house to live in. So they began the work of ragpicking. His family lives a hand-to-mouth existence. Thus, this lesson deals with the plight of street children like Saheb-e-Alam, and Mukesh of Firozabad working in a glass bangle factory. The children of such families are forced to labour early in life and denied the opportunities of going to school. These children are trapped in the vicious circle of social stigma, tradition, poverty and exploitation. Thus, the title of the story rightly explains and brings out the depravity of child labour in our country.

Question 7.
What contrast do you notice between the colour of the bangles and the atmosphere of the place where these bangles are made?
The dusty streets of Firozabad, the bangle-making district, are overflowing with garbage and the stink is overwhelming. The hovels where the bangle-makers dwell have walls that are crumbling down, with unstable doors and no windows. The conditions are so terrible that families of humans and animals live together.

The drabness and lack of colour in the lives of these people contrast starkly with the colour of the bangles which lie everywhere “sunny gold, paddy green, royal blue, pink, purple, every colour born out of the seven colours of the rainbow”. The unhappiness and tedium in the lives of the bangle-makers contrasts the joy and merriment that their bangles will bring to the women who will buy and wear them.

Question 8.
What did the writer see when Mukesh took her to his home?
The writer realised that it was a slum area. The lanes were stinking and were choked with garbage. The homes looked like hovels. Their walls were crumbling. The doors were wobbly, with no windows. The homes were crowded with humans and animals living together. Mukesh’s home looked like a half-built shack. In one of its parts, a firewood stove had a large vessel on it.

A frail young woman cooked the evening meal. She was the wife of Mukesh’s elder brother. As Mukesh’s father came in, she brought her veil closer to her face. The old man was a poor bangle-maker. Even after long years of hard labour, he had been unable to renovate his house. He was unable to send his two sons to school. Mukesh’s grandmother was also there. Her husband had become blind with dust from the polishing of glass bangles.

Question 9.
Describe the difficulties the bangle-makers of Firozabad have to face in their lives.
OR
Describe the circumstances which keep the workers in the bangle industry in poverty.
The bangle-makers of Firozabad live in utter poverty generation after generation. They believe that they are the people who are destined to work as glass bangle-makers. They make beautiful bangles for women but they live in dark. The workers have to look at the hot bright furnaces while polishing bangles. While welding pieces of coloured glass into bangles, they have no other option but are forced to sit near flickering lamps. Hence, they are forced to stay in a dark room and their eyes are not in a position to see the daylight outside. They become blind even before they become adults. Their life is embroiled in a web that is created by the moneylenders, middlemen and politicians. Instead of helping them, the law enforcing authorities only prey upon their misfortunes.

Question 10.
In the lesson ‘Lost Spring’, Saheb and Mukesh are deprived of their childhood pleasures and education. Nobel Peace prize winners Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai have been fighting for the rights of the children. Motivated by these activists, you write an article on the topic, ‘Evils of child labour and denial of education’. You are Mahesh/Malvika. Write your article in about 125-150 words.
Evils Of Child Labour and Denial Of Education
By Malvika
Child labour has been a major problem not only in India but also in all the developing countries. It is a great social problem. We often find children working in dhabas, factories, tea stalls, fields and homes. They often become ragpickers and street performers. All this deprives children of a normal, carefree childhood. Schooling becomes a distant dream, and a perpetual state of poverty becomes a reality. Dreams become a mirage.

Child labour is often borne out of the need for survival. Often the reason is to increase the income of a poor family. Industries often employ children under 14, in the hope of reducing the labour cost in their organisation.
In a developed society, where every citizen counts and all citizens have to have proper education, health care support, games and entertainment, a child with less or absolutely . no education finds it hard to survive.

Taking up a small job as a domestic help or in a restaurant for a nominal salary of ₹ 750-1800 per month, does not leave a child with enough time for primary and secondary education. All this renders a child completely illiterate, unskilled and perhaps unhealthy. Free education should be provided to poor children to motivate their parents to send them to school.

The government should come forward with schemes for upliftment of the poor and unemployed. This will take away the burden of earning their livelihood from the tender shoulders of poor children. Hence, no child should be engaged as labourers, both from a legal point of view as well in the interest of the child’s future.

Question 11.
“Butpromises like mine abound… in their bleak world.” Saheb and others like him spend their life on unfulfilled promises. One role that the youth can play to improve their conditions is by volunteering in programmes like, ‘Each one Teach one’. You are Vibha Raghunathan, the Head Girl of Bal Vidyalaya, Rohtak. You and some other students of the school are touched by the plight of the slum kids, who would love to be educated but can’t because of their poor economic conditions. You and your friends wish to make a difference by teaching these kids. Draft a notice, in not more than 50 words, making an appeal for generous help and inviting other students for the same purpose.
Bal Vidyalaya, Rohtak
Notice
11 May 20XX
Eact One Teach One
A school trip is being planned to the nearby slums on every Sunday. The purpose of this trip is to teach the slum children. Those who are interested in being a part of this noble cause can attend a meeting at 4:00 p.m. on Tuesday, 2 June 20XX at the school auditorium.
Vibha Raghunathan

Question 12.
Garbage to them is gold. How do ragpickers of Seemapuri survive?
Seemapuri is on the outskirts of Delhi. It is comprised of migrants from Bangladesh who survived through ragpicking. These refugees are provided with no amenities of sewage, drainage or running water and is unlike the life of glitter and glamour in Delhi. Poverty prevails here from corner to corner. Ragpicking meant survival for them. It assumed proportions of fine art.

For the children of course it proves to be fun. They scrounge through the garbage to discover valuables in them. Saheb, the main character has resigned to this life. The ragpickers who came here way back in 1971, live in mud houses, with roofs of tin and tarpaulin. For all these years, they have had no identity, ho permits yet possess ration cards and have their names in the voter’s list. All of them know that garbage would ensure their daily bread and a roof above their heads.

Question 13.
For the children it is wrapped in wonder, for the elders it is a means of survival.” What kind of life do the ragpickers of Seemapuri lead?
Seemapuri is on the outskirts of Delhi, comprising migrants from Bangladesh, who survived by way of ragpicking. These refugees, who settled down here in 1971 have no amenities of sewage, drainage or running water and is unlike the life of glitter and glamour in Delhi. Poverty prevails here from corner to corner. Ragpicking is the only means of survival for them and at times it assumes proportions of fine art. For the children of course it proves to be fun and they scrounge through the garbage to discover valuables in them.

Saheb, the main character has resigned to this life. The dwellers here live in mud houses, with roofs of tin and tarpaulin. For all these years, they have had no identity, no permits yet possess ration cards and have their names in the voter’s list. All of them know that garbage would ensure their daily bread and a roof above their head.

Question 14.
What change do you find in Saheb’s life when he stops ragpicking and starts working at a tea stall?
When Saheb started working at the tea stall, his face lost the carefree look which he used to have when he was a rag picker. He was no longer his own master now. He had to do what the owner of the tea stall asked him to do. He carried heavy metal canisters, instead of light plastic bags and these canisters were not even his own. The plastic bags were his own. He was not happy working at the tea stall as he had lost his freedom.

Question 15.
Do the poor have the right to dream? Why then does the author call Mukesh’s dream ‘a mirage’?
Dream comes naturally, and everybody has a right to it whether rich or poor. It is true that Mukesh had challenges in life, but he was very optimistic though the dream was like a mirage for him. He belonged to a family that was in the marginalised category of the society. He disliked his profession of bangle-making that blinded children at an early age and gave no proper food or shelter.

He wanted to become a motor mechanic even though he had been working for years in the bangle-making factory. He knew about the vicious circle of politicians and middlemen, yet he had a dream to fulfill one day.

A learner needs to read stories thoroughly and accurately to score better in CBSE Class 12 English exams. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 2 Lost Spring has been answered by experts to ensure that the story can be easily understood.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 1 The Last Lesson

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 1 The Last Lesson is a detailed account of what you will learn in The Last Lesson Chapter 1 Class 12 English. To successfully pass CBSE Class 12 English exam and get an excellent grade on your report card at the end of it all you need a thorough understanding and comprehension of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English, Flamingo Chapter 1 The Last Lesson Class 12 English which we have made sure covers everything important! Check out about The Last Lesson author, Alphonse Daude, and some The Last Lesson sample questions.

## The Last Lesson NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 1

### The Last Lesson NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers

The Last Lesson Think as you read

Question 1.
What was Franz expected to be prepared with for school that day?
Franz was expected to be prepared with participles. Mr Hamel had told the class that he would be taking a test on the topic that day.

Question 2.
What did Franz notice that was usual about the school that day?
Usually when the school begins, there would be a lot of commotions. But that day, everything was quiet and it appeared to be like a Sunday, but the students were at their places and Mr Hamel was walking up and down with his terrible iron ruler under his arm.

Question 3.
What had been put up on the bulletin board?
The bulletin-board notified the general public about an order from Berlin. It stated that only German will be taught to the students in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine.

Question 4.
What changes did the order from Berlin cause in school that day?
The order from Berlin brought all the routine hustle-bustle of the school life to a stand¬still. The teacher, M. Hamel became more sympathetic to his students and taught his lessons with more patience. The students became more attentive in their classes. The villagers were sitting at the usually empty back benches and had come to show their respect and gratitude to M. Hamel.

They regretted not going to school. The order also brought about a great change in people’s feelings towards their country and their native language. There was a general sadness about not being able to utilise the opportunities of learning French when it was possible to do so.

Question 5.
How did Franz’s feelings about M. Hamel and the school change?
Franz was shocked when M. Hamel told the students about the order from Berlin and that it was their last French lesson. He forgot about his teacher’s ruler and crankiness. He developed a sudden fondness for M. Hamel, and was disturbed by the idea of being separated from him forever. He understood the pain and agony his teacher was undergoing. And he became more sympathetic towards his teacher.

His school, too, now carried a different meaning. His books and lessons seemed old friends, whom he couldn’t give up. He realised with pain that how much French meant to him and regretted not being attentive in his classes earlier. Suddenly, he felt that the ‘difficult concepts’ had never actually been difficult.

The Last Lesson Understanding the Text

Question 1.
The people in this story suddenly realise how precious their language is to them. What shows you this? Why does this happen?
M. Hamel told the students and the villagers that henceforth only German would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. Those who called themselves Frenchmen would neither be able to speak nor write it. He praised French as the most beautiful, the clearest and the most logical language in the world. He said that for the enslaved people that their language was the key out of prison. Only then the people realised the importance of their language. This shows people’s love for their own culture, traditions and country. Pride in one’s language reflects pride in the motherland.

Question 2.
Franz thinks, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?” What could this mean?
Alphonse Daudet’s ‘The Last Lesson’ very prominently raises the question of linguistic and cultural hegemony of the colonial and imperial powers and their lust for controlling the world and influencing their cultures and identities. Enforcement of German on the defeated nation was a way of realising this. The order to teach German rather than . French in schools was released.

Franz is flabbergasted on hearing this and understands that this order would deprive him of learning his mother tongue. He also wondered if the pigeons would have to coo in German. By compelling them to use a foreign language was like snatching away their language from them, which he felt would be unfair and unkind.

The language was as natural to them as cooing is to the pigeon. So compulsion to speak another language is like dominating the force of nature and enslaving it. As it is next to impossible to alter the way pigeons sing, the same way, it is difficult for people to accept a language which is forcibly imposed on them. Adopting a new language causes pain and discomfort.
Or
This sentence could possibly mean that however hard the authorities try to embed German language in the culture of Alsace and Lorraine, the natural status of French for them, will remain unchanged. French flows in the air and the entire place is full of its effect. Even though they train students in German, the basic mode of communication would remain unchanged like the cooing of the pigeons.

The Last Lesson Talking about the Text

Question 1.
“When people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison.” Can you think of examples in history where a conquered people had their language taken away from them or had a language imposed on them?
Some examples of the native language taken away from its people and/or imposition of the language of the conqueror are:

• Portuguese becoming the lingua franca of Angola.
• English imposed on the various Celtic people.
• Spanish imposed on the Basques and the Catalans.
• Turkish imposed on the Kurds.

Question 2.
What happens to a linguistic minority in a state? How do you think they can keep their language alive? For example:
Punjabis in Bangalore
Tamilians in Mumbai
Gujaratis in Kolkata
A linguistic minority in a state does not have as much liberty to exercise linguistic skills as the natives of the state. They initially try to learn the jargons in order to cope with the day-to-day activities and finally begin to understand the native language with regular interaction. At the workplace and educational organisations, English or the link language helps a lot to cope with the work and learning process. But when it comes to understanding the basic norms of the society, in order to socialise, one does face a sort of linguistic barrier during communication.

To keep their language alive, the linguistic minorities can form small communities where . they can celebrate their festivals as per their traditions. Moreover, they can continue to speak their native language at their homes in order to make their children learn the language. People must even try to visit their native places at regular intervals in order to stay close to their roots.

Question 3.
Is it possible to carry pride in one’s language too far? Do you know what ‘linguistic chauvinism’ means?
Yes, it is possible to carry pride in one’s language too far if one is fond of one’s own language at the cost of belittling of other languages. Indifference towards other languages is not healthy for any democracy like India.

When the sense of belonging to one’s own language crosses the thin line between ‘pride’ and ‘proud’, it becomes linguistic chauvinism. If people feel good about their language and traditions, they must have tolerance for other languages too. Everybody has the right to follow the religion as well as speak the language as per their choice.

The Last Lesson Working with Words

Notice the underlined words in these sentences and tick the option that best explains their meanings.
(a) “What a thunderclap these words were to me!”
The words were
(i) loud and clear.
(ii) startling and unexpected.
(iii) pleasant and welcome.

(b) “When people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison.”
It is as if they have the key to the prison as long as they
(i) do not lose their language.
(ii) are attached to their language.
(iii) quickly learn the conqueror’s language

(c) Don’t go so fast, you will get to your school in plenty of time.
You will get to your school
(i) very late.
(ii) too early.
(iii) early enough.

(d) I never saw him look so tall.
M. Hamel
(ii) seemed very confident.
(iii) stood on the chair.
(a) (ii) startling and unexpected.
(b) (ii) are attached to their language.
(c) (iii) early enough.
(d) (ii) seemed very confident.

### The Last Lesson Extra Questions and Answers

The Last Lesson Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
How was the scene in the school, on the morning of the last lesson, different from thaton other days?
OR
How was M. Hamel’s class different the day Franz went late to school?
Generally, there would be a great bustle, closing and shutting of desks, lessons repeated loudly in unison, rapping of the teachers’ ruler on the table, all of which could be heard out in the street. But that everything was quite different. There was no noise. All were in their seats, Franz walked in late and M. Hamel let him calmly. He then noticed that his sir was dressed in his best clothes and there were the elders of the village seated in the class. It was a bit later that Franz realised why the day was different. It was their last French lesson.

Question 2.
How does M. Hamel pay a tribute to the French language?
OR
What did M. Hamel tell them about the French language? What did he ask them to do and why?
M. Hamel went on to talk about French language. He told that it was the most beautiful language of the world. It was the clearest and the most logical of all languages. He asked the people to guard it among themselves and never forget it. As long as people ‘hold fast to their language, they have the key to freedom’.

Question 3.
One order from Berlin changed the scenario of the school. Comment.
The order from Berlin led to the announcement that French would not be taught anymore, and instead, German would be taught by a new master. This was to be their last French lesson. The class was quiet as it was a Sunday morning with no hustle and bustle. The teacher, M. Hamel was patient and calm but inwardly emotional. He was in his special dress. The sad villagers were sitting on the last benches like the other students and the teacher explained the lesson very patiently.

Question 4.
“What a thunderclap these words were to me!” Which were the words that shocked and surprised little Franz?
M. Hamel said, “My children, this is the last French lesson I shall give you. The order has come from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The new master will come tomorrow. This is your last French lesson. I want you to be attentive”. These words of his teacher were a thunderclap for Franz.

Question 5.
Who did M. Hamel blame for the neglect of learning on the part of boys like Franz?
M. Hamel blamed the parents for the neglect of learning of French language as they engaged the boys in farm work. He also blamed himself to some extent as he too assigned the work of gardening to boys like Franz. He also gave them a holiday whenever he wanted to go for fishing.

Question 6.
“This is your last French lesson.” How did Franz react to this declaration of M. Hamel?
OR
How did Franz react to the declaration that it was their last French lesson?
The announcement made by M. Hamel left a great impact not only on Franz but all the other citizens. Franz was shocked to hear that M. Hamel was leaving and that it was his last lesson. He realised that he would not be able to read and speak his own mother tongue and regretted his lack of interest and carelessness.

Question 7.
How did M. Hamel say farewell to his students and the people of the town?
M. Hamel looked very pale and tall when he stood up in his chair. All the students were quiet. The village people old Hauser, the former Mayor, the former postmaster and several others were present in the schoolroom. The teacher told the villagers that French was the most beautiful language in the world. He ended the lesson by writing Vive La France on the blackboard. He made a gesture with his hand to indicate that the school is dismissed and students could go home.

Question 8.
Why had the bulletin board become a centre of attention during the last two years?
For the past two years, the news of lost battles, the draft and the orders of the commanding officer were displayed on the bulletin board. People thronged the bulletin board to read all this information. This was the reason why it had become a centre of attention.

Question 9.
What was tempting Franz to keep away from school ‘that morning’?
Franz was supposed to learn participles as part of his schoolwork, which he had not done. Therefore, he was afraid of being scolded by M. Hamel. Also, he wanted to spend the day outdoors as it was warm and bright. The sight of the chirping birds and the Prussian soldiers drilling appealed to him more than the rules of participles.

Question 10.
What was unusual about M. Hamel’s dress and behavior on the day of his last French lesson?
Whenever Franz arrived late, he was met by an angry teacher. This time, however, he was astounded when he was welcomed by a kind and polite M. Hamel. This was quite contrary to his nature. Moreover, he was dressed in his best clothes, a beautiful green coat, frilled shirt and an embroidered black silk cap, which he wore only on inspection and prize days.

Question 11.
Why had M. Hamel put on his fine Sunday clothes? Why were the old men of the village sitting there in the back of the classroom?
OR
Who occupied the backbenches in the classroom on the day of the last lesson? Why?
The back benches were occupied by the people of the village. Old Hansar, who had his three-cornered hat, the former Mayor, the former post master, and several other elders. They had come to express their respect and regard for M. Hamel and sorrow that he had to leave from their midst.

Question 12.
How did Franz perform when his turn came to recite? How did M. Hamel react?
Franz’s name was called and he was asked to recite. Despite his best efforts, he got mixed up on the first words. He stood there holding on to his desk. His heart beat fast. And he did not dare look up. M. Hamel told him in a polite tone that he would not scold him as he was not the only one who neglected learning French. Many others in Alsace shared his fate because of procrastination. He said that every one had a great deal to reproach themselves with.

Question 13.
“We’ve all a great deal to reproach ourselves with.” Why did M. Hamel blame the parents and himself too for not showing due attention and care to the learning of French?
M. Hamel did not hold Franz responsible for neglecting the learning of French. Most people of Alsace only pretended to be Frenchmen. But they could neither speak nor write their own language. The parents were not anxious to have them learn. They preferred to put children on a farm or at the mills to earn a little more money. He . even held himself responsible as he often sent his students to water his flowers instead of learning their lessons. He also used to give a holiday whenever he wanted to go fishing.

Question 14.
What does M. Hamel say about French language? What did he urge upon his students and villagers to do?
M. Hamel talked at length about the French language. He considered French to be the most beautiful language in the world. It was the clearest and the most logical language too. He urged his students to guard it among themselves and reminded them never to forget it.

Question 15.
How does M. Hamel prove to be an ideal teacher?
M. Hamel brings home the message of importance of love of mother tongue and patriotism. He explains things well and asks students to continue learning French even when he is gone. Hence, he proves to be an ideal teacher.

Question 16.
How was M. Hamel dressed differently that day? Why?
M. Hamel wore a green coat, frilled shirt and black silk cap to the class. He announced that it was their last lesson in French and that German will be taught in the school in the future. He was proud of being French and was upset by occupation of Alsace by Germans. He was very attached to the town, the school and its people.

Question 17.
What had the narrator counted on to enter the school unnoticed?
The teacher’s rap of the ruler, the banging of the desks, and the lessons repeated would be so loud that it could be heard in the street. The author thought this background would be a shield and he could enter the school unnoticed.

Question 18.
What changes did the order from Berlin cause in the school?
The order from Berlin directed schools in the districts of Alsace and Lorraine in France to teach German instead of French.

Question 19.
Why were the elders of the village sitting in the classroom?
The elders of the village came to the classroom to attend the last lesson of French in the school as a mark of respect to the French teacher, Mr Hamel who had been teaching there for the last forty years. These elders had not studied well, and could not read and write their mother tongue, French and so as it was the last opportunity for them, they came to attend the class.

Question 20.
How did Franz react to the declaration that it was their last French lesson?
Franz was shocked and sad when he heard this news. Suddenly, he developed a liking for his language and was keen to learn French. He was remorseful for not learning well in the past and was sad that his teacher, Mr Hamel would go away.

Question 21.
What did Franz wonder about when he entered the class that day?
He wondered why the classroom was still with no great bustle, the sound of desks opening and closing, lessons being repeated in unison, very loudly and M. Hamel’s great ruler rapping on the table.

Question 22.
Why was Franz not scolded for reaching the school late that day?
Franz was not scolded that day as the situation was different than the other days. It was the last lesson in French by M. Hamel, who taught for forty years there. He regretted neglecting his classes earlier and wanted to compensate on the last day, before he left.

Question 23.
How were the parents and M. Hamel responsible for the children’s neglect of the French language?
Parents were never keen or anxious to make their children learn French. They rather made them work in the fields or mills. Mr Hamel also lacked sincerity. He made the children water his garden during class hours or dismissed his class when he wanted to go for fishing.

Question 24.
“We’ve all a great deal to reproach ourselves with”, said M. Hamel. Refer to the context and explain what he wanted to convey to his students.
M. Hamel wanted to convey to his students that still no loss has caused. If they desire, they can do a lot. Further, he advised them to move on and not to look back. He boosted the morale of his students by saying that though they have to blame themselves for not attending the school and he himself had to blame and disgrace himself for giving the holiday to students but hoped that they could mend their ways.

The Last Lesson Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is ‘linguistic chauvinism’? Analyse the order from Berlin in this light. How do you justify M. Hamel’s views about French and the new-found love of the people towards their language?
Carrying pride in one’s language too far leads to ‘linguistic chauvinism’. We can analyse the order from Berlin in this light. It is nothing but a pure example of linguistic chauvinism. The imposition of German language over the French-speaking population can’t be justified at all. It is the worst kind of colonialism.

M. Hamel’s love for French is genuine. The shocking order from Berlin arouses patriotic feelings in him. He loves French and feels it to be the most beautiful language in the world. He calls it the clearest and the most logical language too. He regrets that the people of Alsace did not pay much heed to the learning of this great language. He asks the people to safeguard it among themselves.

It is the key to their unity and freedom. The people of Alsace, particularly the village elders, suddenly realise how precious their language is to them. Students like Franz too are not immune to patriotic feelings. Franz feels sorry for neglecting the learning of French. He hates the idea of German language being imposed on them. He remarks sarcastically, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?” The last lesson was so impactful that it helped to revive the love for the language among the people of Alsace.

Question 2.
How can you estimate M. Hamel as a man with a ruler and as a man with a gesture?
OR
How does M. Hamel prove to be an ideal teacher?
In ‘The Last Lesson’, Alphonse Daudet presents M. Hamel’s character with due sympathy and respect. Initially, he is presented in the mould of a traditional schoolmaster. He used his terrible ruler under his arm. Everyone could hear the rapping of the ‘great ruler’ on the table even outside in the street. Franz reminds us ‘how cranky’ M. Hamel was. The students used to dread their schoolmaster. Franz was scared of being scolded as he had not prepared his lesson on participles. For a moment, he even thought of running away from school. Mr Hamel was a hard task master. He maintained discipline in the class.

The other side of Mr Hamel’s character is seen after the order from Berlin came. He had been transformed now. He became soft and gentle towards his students. He didn’t scold Franz for coming late. He did not even use his ruler when little Franz got mixed up and confused when his turn to recite came. He declared that it was his last lesson in French as from the next day German would be taught in the schools of Lorraine and Alsace. He would leave the next day. A new teacher would come in his place. He wore his best dress in honour of the last lesson.

M. Hamel was given respect not only by his students but even by the village elders. He was totally dedicated to the cause of teaching. He had been teaching for forty years in the same school. The village elders came to pay their respect to such a grand teacher. They sat on the back benches to listen to his last lesson.

M. Hamel loved France and French from the depth of his heart. He regarded French as the most beautiful language in the world. He told the people to guard it among themselves and never to forget it. On hearing the sound of trumpets of the Prussian soldiers under his window, patriotic feelings overpowered him. He mounted the chair and tried to speak, however something choked him. He wrote “Vive La France” with a piece of chalk on the blackboard and dismissed the class.

Question 3.
Write a character sketch of Franz.
Franz was a student of a school in Alsace. His schoolmaster was M. Hamel. Franz was not brilliant. Franz enjoyed spending time out of doors. He liked the warm and bright day, and loved to listen to the chirping of the birds and watching the drilling of the Prussian soldiers. He preferred this instead of being in the classroom. He didn’t prepare his lesson on participles. When he was asked to recite, he got mixed up and confused. He was not excited to go to school and did not show any interest in M. Hamel’s teaching.But he was scared of M. Hamel’s scolding. He always dreaded the great ruler that M. Hamel kept under his arm. Franz knew how ‘cranky’ M. Hamel was.

However, Franz was forced to change his opinion about M. Hamel. An order came from Berlin pronouncing that German language would be taught in the schools of French districts of Alsace and Lorraine. On knowing that it was the last lesson that Mr Hamel was going to deliver, his views about him changed. He started respecting the man who had spent forty years in the same school. He felt sorry for not learning French.

He shared M. Hamel’s views about French. It was the most beautiful language in the world. Franz sarcastically remarked, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?” After the last lesson, his views about French took a patriotic turn. He listened to M. Hamel’s last lesson with rapt attention and dignity, and regretted having been careless and inattentive.

Question 4.
Our native language is part of our culture and we are proud of it. How does the presence of village elders in the classroom and M. Hamel’s last lesson show their love for French?
OR
Our language is part of our culture and we are proud of it. Describe how regretful M. Hamel and the village elders are for having neglected their native language, French.
M. Hamel told the students and villagers that henceforth only German would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. Those who called themselves Frenchmen would neither be able to speak nor write it. He praised French as the most beautiful, the clearest and the most logical language in the world. He said that for the enslaved people, their language was the key out of prison. Only then the people realised the importance of their language. This shows people’s love for their own culture, traditions and country. Pride in one’s language reflects pride in motherland.

When Franz jumbled while it was his turn to answer, M. Hamel expresses regret at the pathetic state of the language among the folks of Alsace. He regrets the fact that everyone chose to procrastinate. Also, he felt that the parents preferred their children worked in the farms for that extra income. He worried that the Germans would ridicule them for being incapable of speaking and writing their language. He blames everyone including himself for being careless, lazy and Lackadaisical (unenthusiastic and lack of determination).

Question 5.
Everybody during the last lesson is filled with regret. Comment.
Everybody during the last lesson is filled with regret. There was a general sadness about not being able to utilise the opportunities of learning French when it was easily accessible. Franz wished that he had attended classes more often and regretted not being attentive in his classes earlier. He suddenly found his lessons more interesting and easy. The villagers, who were sitting at the usually empty back benches and had come to show their respect and gratitude to M. Hamel, regretted not going to school more than they did.

The order also brought about a great change in the feelings of the people towards their country and their native language. M. Hamel regretted sending his students to water his flowers instead of learning their lessons. He also regretted giving holiday to students whenever he wanted to go on fishing.

Question 6.
What changes did the narrator find in the school when the order from Berlin came?
The order from Berlin prohibited teaching of French in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. Instead, German was to be taught in the schools. Franz was late for school that day. He noticed that the hustle and bustle was missing. There was no opening and closing of desks, no repetition of lessons or rapping of the teacher’s ruler on the table could be heard. It was all very quiet and still.

Franz was further surprised because, instead of meeting an angry teacher, he was welcomed by a kind and polite teacher, who was dressed in his best clothes, a beautiful green coat, frilled shirt and an embroidered silk cap, which he wore only on inspection and prize days. The back benches were occupied by the village people who never came to school, as they were more concerned about their livelihood. He was further astounded to know that M Hamel was going to teach his last lesson that day.

Question 7.
Justify the title of the story, ‘The Last Lesson’.
The title of the story, ‘The Last Lesson’ is self-relieving. The whole story revolves around the title. The beginning of the story serves as preparation for it. The title also conveys the central theme of the story—the fact that sometimes even the most precious things in our lives are taken for granted. The people of Alsace never gave much importance to the mother tongue, French.

They did not even insist their children to pay any attention to their language. They did not encourage regular attendance of their children in French classes. They preferred their children to work and earn, instead of studying. The order from Prussians made them realise the importance of their mother tongue. So they attend M. Hamel’s last lesson altogether. Thus, the title, ‘The Last Lesson’ is justified.

Question 8.
Write a character sketch of M. Hamel as a teacher.
M. Hamel was a true French man who has been teaching French in the districts of Alsace and Lorraine for forty years. He loved his profession and was proud of his language, French. He had a deep sense of respect for his mother tongue. He considered French to be the most beautiful language in the world. As a teacher, he was very particular and strict in imparting knowledge to his students. When France was overtaken by Prussians, he was depressed because French was banned from being taught in the schools. While taking his last lesson, he tried his best to remain calm and composed.

His sorrow was evident in the way he was sitting in the class while his students were completing their writing assignments. He felt tormented at the fact that people had become indifferent to learning French and appealed to them to keep their language alive. He was a true patriot. He believed that mother tongue is a means of holding one’s identity and self¬respect. At the end of his last lesson, he writes ‘Vive La France!’ on the blackboard. This shows his love and concern for the people and the language of his country.

A learner needs to read stories thoroughly and accurately to score better in CBSE Class 12 English exams. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 1 The Last Lesson has been answered by experts to ensure that the story can be easily understood.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 7 The Interview

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 7 The Interview is a detailed account of what you will learn in Chapter 7 The Interview Class 12 English. To successfully pass CBSE Class 12 English exam and get an excellent grade on your report card at the end of it all you need a thorough understanding and comprehension of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English, Flamingo Chapter 7 The Interview which we have made sure covers everything important!

## The Interview NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 7

### The Interview NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers

The Interview Think as you read

Question 1.
What are some of the positive views on interviews?
The writer believes that interview helps us in finding out the hidden talents of person. Several thousand celebrities have been interviewed over the years. They regard it as the highest form of deciding the truth but in practice it is an art. Thus, an interview helps us to know the truth as well as the art.

Question 2.
Why do most celebrity writers despise being interviewed?
Most of the celebrity writers despise being interviewed as it is an unwanted intrusion into their privacy. They believe that the interview diminishes them in one way or the other. They do not want to be prey of the interview. The wife of Rudyard Kipling calls that an interview is immoral, and it is a crime.

Question 3.
What is the belief in some primitive cultures about being photographed?
Some of the world fame writers are averse to being photographed. They despise it vehemently and offer their condemnatory remarks. It is like taking a photographic portrait of somebody. After that his soul is stolen. It is the severest offence of life. Thus, many people regard it as a crime and offence.

Question 4.
What do you understand by the expression “Thumb prints on his windpipe”?
In the writer’s opinion, interviewing is like the “thumb prints on his windpipe.” It is related to the fact of smothering a person whose finger imprints can be traced on the throat. Similarly, the writer perceives an interview as immoral, a crime and an offence. It is an assault as well as vile. No respectable person believes in an interview. This expression explains the feeling of being suffocated.

Question 5.
Who, in today’s world, is our chief source of information about personalities?
Inspite of drawbacks, interview is the most supreme and serviceable medium of communication. Through interviews” we deduce clearly about impressions of different personalities. Through the art of questioning others, we can get every point of his/her soul from him/her. So, the interviewer has got an unmatchable power and influence.

Question 6.
The medium you like best for an interview, print, radio or television.
The medium I like the best for an interview is the television. It has both audio and visual effect. It presents the interviewer and interviewee before the audience in their true colours. Usually celebrities accuse the reporters of misquoting them or misreporting them in the print media or the radio. This is not possible when they are face-to-face on the television.

Their lip movement and body movement while replying to probing questions are there for all to see. The recording of various expressions coming on the face of the interviewee and his/her gestures and words are the additional advantages that television holds over the print media or the radio. The print media has dull, dry woods alongside a picture, whereas the radio tries to create the atmosphere by skilful variation of the sound. Both expect a lot of attention from the reader/audience.

Question 7.
Every famous person has a right to his or her privacy. Interviewers sometimes embarrass celebrities with very personal questions.
Interviewers want to present exclusive and intimate details about the famous person they are interviewing. Some interviewers focus on the public life and achievements of the individual only. They try to be objective in their approach as well as assessment. However, there are others who want to make their interviews spicier and usually cross the thin limit of privacy of the individual. In their zeal to present good copy, they embarrass the famous person with the personal questions.

Sometimes, the impact of such questions on famous person reveals his/her aversion as well as irritation at the silliness of the person. If they shout, they are accused of being rude and proud, and if they keep mum, they are labelled as arrogant. In my opinion, privacy of an individual must be respected.

The Interview Understanding the Text

Question 1.
Do you think Umberto Eco likes being interviewed? Give reasons for your opinion.
After screening and going through the interview extract, one can easily notice that Umberto Eco does not allow the slightest wrinkle on his face while being interviewed. Rather, he interacts very properly and methodically. He gives details about writing his novel The Name of the Rose and the way he pursues his philosophical interests. He feels happy considering him as a University Professor. Thus, he does not think that interviewing is any kind of crime or an offence. It is only a way to detail others.

Question 2.
How does Eco find the time to write so much?
Umberto Eco works on the theory of interstice i.e., an empty space. Eco believes that we have a lot of empty spaces in our lives. He terms them interstices. He always works in empty spaces. He gives an example by saying, “Suppose one is coming over to my place in a lift from first floor to the third floor. The wait and the time duration to come over to the third floor is an interstice.” So Umberto Eco works so much during this empty space.

Question 3.
Umberto Eco displays philosophical interests in his writing style. His books for children are about non-violence and peace. They even find ethical facts. His essays have a narrative aspect which exhibits his personal quality. It departs from the regular academic style, which is dry and boring. He started writing novels by accident at the age of 50 years.

Question 4.
Did Umberto Eco consider himself a novelist first or an academic scholar?
Umberto Eco does not regard himself a novelist first. It gives him much elation if he is called a University Professor who writes novels on Sundays. He participates in academic conferences but not in the meetings of Pen Clubs and writers. He prefers identifying himself with the academic community.

Question 5.
What is the reason for the huge success of the novel “The Name of the Rose”?
The novel The Name of the Rose is a detective novel at one level but it delves into metaphysics, theology and medieval history. It is a wrong belief that people do not like reading difficult experiences, and they just like trash. Two to three million copies were sold of this book in US. It proves that people like reading difficult experiences.

### The Interview Extra Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What does the author say about the interview?
The author believes that the interview has become commonplace of journalism. Our lives have become complicated as we have to face and pass through this vile process of screening and interaction. Many celebrities had to be interviewed daily and many of them may have to pass from it a number of times. But it is piercing, troublesome and peace-disturbing as it is the wearer who realises where the shoe pinches.

Question 2.
Write down the opinions that disfavour the cause of the interview.
Regarding the conduction of an interview, some believe that in its highest forms, the interview is a valuable source of truth. In practice, it is nothing but a simple art. It is like stealing one’s soul. People hate the interview and call it as an unwarranted intrusion into their lives.

Question 3.
How does V.S. Naipaul feel about interview?
V.S. Naipaul vehemently condemns the cause of the interview. He believes that it is more than losing something from our body. He says that through interviews many would lose a part of our self. In reality, it is horrific for the interviewing candidate. This is the cause why people refuse to give their consent for an interview.

Question 4.
What do Rudyard Kipling and his wife comment about the interview?
Rudyard Kipling is a man of free and frank nature. He is more condemnatory for the attitude of the interviewer. His wife Caroline calls it immoral, crime, an assault and it merits punishment. It is both cowardly and vile. She believes that a respectable person will never ask for an interview.

Question 5.
How do the other authors opine about the interview?
Many authors do not favour the interview. H.G.Wells in an interview in 1894 referred to “the interviewing ordeal”. But he remained a frequent interviewee. Saul Bellow once agreed for an interview but he regarded it as being like thumb prints on his windpipe.

Question 6.
Umberto Eco says: “I am always doing the same thing but that is more difficult to explain.” Why does he say so?
Umberto Eco feels elevated on calling him a professor. People think that he is doing many things but he concludes of doing himself the same thing. It is because that Umberto Eco had some philosophical interest which he followed in his novels and other academic work. His children books are based on peace and non-violence. There is a touch of philosophical and ethical interest as well.

Question 7.
What secret does Umberto Eco point out to Mukund Padmanabhan about an interview?
Umberto Eco points out towards empty space in this universe. According to him if the empty space is eliminated from the universe, and as well as from the atoms, this universe will turn as big as our fist. In the same way, our lives are full of empty spaces. Umberto Eco calls them interstices. Eco says: “ Suppose you are coming over to my place on the third floor. You are in an elevator from the first to third floor and I am waiting for you. This is an interstice.”

Question 8.
How does Umberto Eco explain his capacity of doing so much work? What are ‘interstices’ and how does Eco use them?
Umberto tells the secret pf his working style. People have a lot of empty spaces in their lives. He calls them ‘interstices’ or ‘intervals’. He utilises and makes use of them. This is the secret of his success. He tells his interviewer that while he was waiting for his elevator to come up, he has already written an article.

Question 9.
Describe the distinct style of ‘The Name of the Rose’.
‘The Name of the Rose’ is the most popular and respected novel of Umberto Eco. It is a very serious novel. At one level, it appears to be a detective yarn. But it also delves into metaphysics, theology and medieval history. It is for those readers who don’t want easy experiences. But still it has a tremendous mass appeal.

Question 10.
Justify the title ‘The Interview’.
The title of the excerpt is quite logical and apt. Umberto Eco likes to be interviewed. He cooperates fully with the interviewer, Mukund. He prefers himself to be called an academician than a novelist. He tells him that he started writing novel at the age of 50 just by accident. He wrote 40 non-fictional writings against 5 novels. He thinks himself a professor who writes novels on Sundays.

Question 11.
Why did Umberto Eco start writing novels at the age of 50, more or less?
Umberto Eco was basically an academician. He was pursuing scholarly pursuits through academic writings. He wrote about forty non-fictional writings. He himself says that ‘he became a novelist by accident’. Perhaps that was the reason he started writing novels so late – at the age of 50, more or less.

Question 12.
“In spite of the ‘drawbacks’ the interview is a ‘supremely serviceable medium of communication’. Justify the statement.
Many celebrities consider the interview ‘an unwarranted intrusion’ in their lives. But it has become a commonplace feature of journalism. It is a great serviceable medium of communication. We get the most vivid impressions of our contemporaries only through interviews. Everything reaches us in the simplest and true form when one asks questions of another.

Question 13.
How is Umberto Eco’s non-fictional writing a departure from his regular style?
Umberto Eco’s non-fictional writing is a departure from his regular style. It has a ‘certain
playful and personal quality about it.’ His regular academic style is ‘depersonalised and boring’. Like other scholars Eco doesn’t make false hypotheses. On the contrary he tells the story of his research including his ‘trials and errors’.

Question 14.
‘The Name of the Rose’ is a very ‘serious novel’. Yet it enjoyed a mass audience. Give reasons for its popularity.
Umberto Eco’s famous novel ‘The Name of the Rose’ is a very ‘serious novel’ But it enjoyed a mass audience. The interviewer wants to know the reason of its huge success. Even journalists and publishers are puzzled. People like what is served to them. If they are given to read even serious novels, they will read them. They accepted and digested a serious novel like ‘The Name of the Rose’. Its ‘timing’ was perfect. About 10 to 15 million copies of the novel were sold.

Question 15.
What is the position of the interviewer during the interview?
According to Denis Brian, the interviewer holds a position of ‘unprecedented power and influence. He holds the balance between the audience and the man who is being interviewed. Almost everything of the celebrity reaches us through one man asking questions of another.

Question 16.
Do you think Umberto Eco likes being interviewed? Give a reasoned answer.
Yes, Umberto Eco likes being interviewed. Throughout the interview, he remains cool and composed. He answers Makund’s questions and queries very patiently. He seems to be relaxed and tries to make Mukund quite comfortable. There is no trace of any impatience or irritation visible during the interview.

Question 1.
Explain the word Interview and how do many writers find favour with it.
The word ‘interview’ is derived from French derivative word “entrevue”. It is a conversation between a journalist or broadcaster and a person of public interest. It is an oral examination of an applicant for a job through the process of formal questioning. Since the word has wider implications, it duly involves screening, interaction and introspection. During the process, both the interviewer and the interviewee, participate and the interviewee has to face the horror of the interviewer.

The word interview was inserted 130 years ago. Since then it became a commonplace in journalism. In this world, all have to undergo through the process of the interview. Thousand of people are interviewed daily for one or the other kind. Depending on the merit of the interview, people have claimed in its highest form as a source of truth and in its practice, it is an art. H.G. Wells remained averse to ‘interview’ and in 1894 he referred to it as an ordeal. But forty years later he himself was found interviewing Joseph Stalin of Russia. People view that almost everything reaches us through asking the interviewer who holds a position of unprecedent power and influence.

Question 2.
What does Umberto Eco point out about himself and his novel, “The Name of the Rose”?
In an interview with Mukund, Umberto Eco points out that he regards himself a University Professor rather than a novelist. Uikewise, he readily went in academic conferences but did not go to meetings of Pen Clubs and the writers. He links himself with the academic community. He is a professor who writes novels on Sundays. Even people have the impression that Umberto Eco is doing many things.

Here Eco tells that his work includes philosophical interest and in his novels for children one can find non¬violence and peace. He says that the universe has empty spaces and these are eliminated in all the atoms. The universe will become as big as the fist of a man. He regards these empty spaces as interstices and he works in them.

For his writing, Umberto Eco adopts informal approach. He departs from a regular academic style and his essays follow a narrative aspect, which was the crowning success for his novel The Name of the Rose. It attracted a mass audience. His novels are full of narration. Side by side his novel has metaphysics, theology and medieval history as well. It has other experiences too.

Question 3.
How does Umberto Eco pursue his philosophical and academic interests? How does he make use of ‘interstices’? How has he developed a non-fictional style?
Umberto Eco has many philosophical interests. He pursues them through his academic works and novels. Even his children’ works are about non-violence and peace. They are the same bunch of ethical and philosophical interests. Eco wrote more than 40 scholarly works on non-fiction. Eco considers himself ‘a university professor who writes novels (only) on Sundays’. He prefers to be called an academician.

Umberto shares a secret with the interviewer. He thinks that if we eliminate the empty spaces from the universe, the world will shrink. It will become as big as a fist. Similarly, we have a lot of empty spaces or ‘interstices’ in our lives. He works in these spaces and uses them to his advantage.

Umberto Eco has evolved a distinct non-fictional style. His scholarly works have a certain playful and personal quality about them. It is different from his regular style which is ‘depersonalised and often dry and boring’. He is different from other scholars. Eco tells the story of his research. Even he includes his ‘trials and errors’. His essays always have a narrative aspect. This narrative style of his scholarly works was fully developed later on in his novels.

Question 4.
Several thousand celebrities have been interviewed over the years, some of them repeatedly.’ But still many of them ‘despise the interview as an unwarranted intrusion in their lives’. Describe opinions for and against the interview as mentioned in the lesson.
The interview has become an indispensable feature of journalism today. Several thousand celebrities have been interviewed over the years. Some of them have been interviewed repeatedly. Opinions vary. Some consider it a source of truth. Some call it a great art. It is the most effective and powerful medium of knowing important persons or celebrities.

Usually celebrities despise being interviewed. They consider it as an ‘unwarranted intrusion’ into their lives. They somehow feel that it diminishes them. Naipaul feels that people are ‘wounded by interviews’. They lose a part of themselves. Lewis Carrol never consented to be interviewed. Rudyard Kipling considered it immortal and an offence against his person. H.G. Wells interviewed Joseph Stalin.

But he also considered it as ‘an ordeal’. Saul Bellow considered interviews as ‘thumbprints on his windpipe’.In spite of some of these drawbacks, the interview remains ‘a supremely serviceable medium of communication’. Because of this, the interview holds a position of great power and influence.

Question 5.
What picture do you form of Umberto Eco after reading the extract of the interview of Eco that was taken by Mukund Padmanabhan?